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Author Guidelines

Manuscript Structure and Specifications

STANDARD PAPERS. Original articles should not exceed 7000 words inclusive of all parts of the paper apart from online Supporting Information. Typescripts should be arranged as follows, with each section starting on a separate page.

Title page. This should contain:
A concise and informative title.
A list of author names, affiliation(s), and e-mail addresses.
The name, complete mailing address (including e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers) of the corresponding author.
A running title not exceeding 45 characters.
A word count of the entire paper broken down into summary, main text, acknowledgements, references, tables and figure legends.
The number of tables and figures.
The number of references.

Summary. This is called the Abstract on the web submission site. The Summary should outline the purpose of the paper and the main results, conclusions and recommendations, using clear, factual, numbered statements. Authors should follow a formula in which point 1 sets the context and need for the work; point 2 indicates the approach and methods used; the next 2-3 points outline the main results; and the last point identifies the wider implications and relevance to management or policy. The final summary point is the most important of all in maximising the impact of the paper. It should synthesise the paper's key messages and should be generic, seminal and accessible to non-specialists, and must carry one of the following subheadings:

'Synthesis and applications' for articles that identify recommendations for management practices.
‘Policy implications’ for articles that are less directly tied to on-the-ground management and include discussion on conservation implications or links to policy.

Keywords. A list in alphabetical order not exceeding ten words or short phrases, excluding words used in the title and chosen carefully to reflect the precise content of the paper.

Introduction. State the reason for the work, the context, background, aims and the hypotheses being tested. End the Introduction with a brief statement of what has been achieved.

Materials and methods. Include sufficient details for the work to be repeated. Where specific equipment and materials are named, the manufacturer’s details (name, city and country) should be given so that readers can trace specifications by contacting the manufacturer. Where commercially available software has been used, details of the supplier should be given in brackets or the reference given in full in the reference list.

Results. State the results of experimental or modelling work, drawing attention to important details in tables and figures. The Results section should conform to the highest standards of rigour.

Discussion. Point out the importance of the results and place them in the context of previous studies and in relation to the application of the work (expanding on the Synthesis and applications section of the Summary). Include clear recommendations for management or policy.

Acknowledgements. Be brief. If authors refer to themselves as recipients of assistance or funding, they should do so by their initials separated by points (e.g. J.B.T.). Do not acknowledge Editors by name.

FIGURES (INCLUDING PHOTOGRAPHS).

Please follow the instructions on figure format and content carefully to avoid delays in manuscript processing. All illustrations are classified as figures. Figures should be placed at the end of the document and each must have a legend, presented separately from the figure. The legend should provide enough detail for the figure to be understood without reference to the text. Information (e.g. keys) that appear on the figure itself should not be duplicated in the legend. In the full-text online edition of the Journal, figure legends may be truncated in abbreviated links to the full screen version. Therefore, the first 100 characters of any legend should inform the reader of key aspects of the figure.

Tables

Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

Web references

As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Reference style Text:

All citations in the text should refer to:

1. Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;

2. Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication;

3. Three or more authors: first author's name followed by 'et al.' and the year of publication. Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically).

Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically. Examples: 'as demonstrated (Allan, 2000a, 2000b, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1999). Kramer et al. (2010) have recently shown ....' List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.

Examples: Reference to a journal publication:

Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J.A.J., Lupton, R.A., 2010. The art of writing a scientific article. J. Sci. Commun. 163, 51–59.

Reference to a book: Strunk Jr., W., White, E.B., 2000. The Elements of Style, fourth ed. Longman, New York.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book: Mettam, G.R., Adams, L.B., 2009. How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B.S., Smith , R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age. E-Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 281–304.

References concerning unpublished data and "personal communications" should not be cited in the reference list but may be mentioned in the text.

 

Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF, or WordPerfect document file format.
  3. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  4. The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  5. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which is found in About the Journal.
  6. If submitting to a peer-reviewed section of the journal, the instructions in Ensuring a Blind Review have been followed.
 

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