Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Cover Image

Scientific Examination of Historic Black stones from the 17th century Mughal Architecture

Saima Gulzar


The historic fabric should be preserved in their original styles and materials. The replacement materials should be carefully selected in terms of physical, chemical, mechanical and aesthetic compatibility. Therefore the present study characterized the historic black colored stones from the 17th century Mughal architecture. The collected samples were initially studied with optical microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction which was further supplemented by SEM-EDS. The chemical compositions were further elaborated with XRF and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy to measure the major element content in addition to trace elemental analysis. The results showed that there were two different groups of black stones (Group-I Limestones’ and Group-II Slates) used in the historic structures of Shahdara-Lahore, Pakistan.

Full Text:



  • There are currently no refbacks.