Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Cover Image

Apolipoproteins A1 and 4 Genes and Proteins as Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis and Staging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Chronic HCV Patients

Hanan Fouad, Eman Medhat Hassan, Samar Kamal Darweesh, Raghda Marzaban, Ghada Mahmoud Abdel-Aziz, Manal Ewaiss Hassan, Marwa Sayed Abdel-Tawab


Aim: The lack of sensitive and specific diagnostics for hepatocellular carcinoma causes an urgent need for early diagnosis by identifying new markers using genomics and proteomics. Our aim was to validate the diagnostic and prognostic performance of Apo-A1 & A4 genes and lipoproteins as new biomarkers for HCC diagnosis.

Patients and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 125 subjects. Group 1, (n= 35) HCC (on top of HCV cirrhosis). Group 2 (n= 35) cirrhosis without HCC, Group 3, (n= 35) chronic HCV (C-HCV) without HCC nor cirrhosis and Group 4, (n= 20) healthy controls. Apolipoprotein A1 & Apolipoprotein A4 by ELISA and their genes expression by RT-PCR were identified in plasma.

Results: Apo-A1 gene and protein were significantly lowest in HCC and higher in C-HCV groups (p: 0.00 for both). Apo-A1 gene significantly decreased with worsening of HCC stage (p: 0.00). On the contrary, Apo-A4 gene and protein significantly decreased in all groups as compared to controls (p: 0.00).

The optimum cut-off for Apo-A1 gene in HCC versus C-HCV groups was ≤1.3 with 100% sensitivity and specificity and for Apo-A1 protein was ≤138.5 with 100 % sensitivity and 97.1 % specificity. While cut-offs of Apo-A4 gene and protein to diagnose HCC had moderate sensitivity and specificity.

Conclusion: Apo-A1 gene and protein are excellent markers to diagnose HCC in chronic HCV while Apo-A4 gene and protein are markers for liver cirrhosis diagnosis.

Full Text:



  • There are currently no refbacks.