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PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF THYMOQUINONE ON THE SUBSEQUENT LONG-TERM SEROTONIN DEPLETION OF RATS’ CEREBROSPINAL FLUID INDUCED BY MDMA (“ECSTASY”)

Nor Suliana Mustafa, Nasir Mohamad, Nor Hidayah Abu Bakar, Nur Liyana Hazwani Mohd Adnan, Nurul Farah Aina Md Fauzi

Abstract


4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; “ecstasy”) is an illicit drug under amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) group. The long-term effect of MDMA leads to the depletion of extracellular serotonin (5HT). Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of thymoquinone (TQ) in preventing the 5HT depletion induced by a single MDMA exposure. This study was designed by dividing the rats randomly into four groups i.e: i) Control group, received 0.1 ml/kg saline, ii) MDMA group, received a single administration of 20 mg/kg MDMA, iii) MDMA-TQ group, received a single administration of 20 mg/kg MDMA and treated with 40 mg/kg TQ for one week and, iv) TQ group, received 40 mg/kg TQ only for one week.  All compounds were given to the rats through oral gavage. Percentage of weight gain was measured, and at the end of the experiment, cerebrospinal fluid was collected from rat’s cisterna magna to evaluate the 5HT neurotransmitter level. Our results demonstrated a significant increased of 5HT level in MDMA-TQ group as compared to the untreated group of MDMA. MDMA group treated with TQ also showed a higher percentage of weight gain as compared to the control group. Our study suggest that the subsequent long-term 5HT depletion of rats’ cerebrospinal fluid induced by MDMA can be prevented by thymoquinone.


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