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Role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies of cardiovascular and renovascular systems: A narrative mini review

Samual Tan Yong Chia, Munavvar Abdul Sattar, Ashfaq Ahmad, NurzalinaBinti Abdul Karim Khan, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah, Ho Yoke Mei, Safia Akhtar Khan, Mohammed Hadi Abdullah, Edward James Johns

Abstract


Cardiovascular and renal diseases are major and leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Both systems are interrelated and often prognosis of one terminates to other system. Current review aimed to highlight the contribution of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and renovascular system.Present review will explain the physiology, pathophysiology of oxidative stress and role of oxidative stress in hypertension and renovascular system. This review will also emphasize on the importance of inhibitors of NADPH oxidase. For this purpose research data was collected fromPubmed, googlescholar and NCBI by using keywords oxidative stress and antioxidant in kidneys and cardiovascular system. In both systems oxidative stress is playing its in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications to renal failure. Balance between prooxidants and antioxidant play vital role in the maintenance of both system remain intact. NADPH oxidase plays a key role in the onset of many diseases and inhibition of NADPH oxidase plays a central role in the pharmacological treatment of many disease. Pathophysiology of kidney and vascular system largely dependent on antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase and prooxidant like malanodiladehyde. There are underlying mechanism starting with down regulation of antioxidant mechanism always lead to morbidity and mortality.  Few inhibitors are available commercially to block NADPH oxidase and adopted as therapeutic option in hypertension and renal failure.


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