Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Cover Image

Impact of bioclimatic and climatic factors on Ficus carica L. yield: increasing the economy and maintaining the food security of Jerusalem in Palestine

Jehad Ighbareyeh, Asma Suliemieh, Mohammed Ighbareyeh, Abel-Qader Daraweesh, Ana Cano Ortiz, Eusebio Cano Carmona

Abstract


Ficus carica L. is a tree that plays a key role in the economics of Palestine, contributing to supporting the economy and maintaining its food security. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the impact of climatic and bioclimatic factors on figs (Ficus carica L.) in order to contribute to the economy of the Jerusalem area in Palestine. Materials and methods: We analysed meteorology data for Jerusalem from the Palestine Meteorological Department, recorded in the period from 1993-2008, and data on (rain-fed) plant yields from the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) and the Palestinian Ministry of Agriculture for the same years. We used Salvador Rivas-Martinez’s bioclimatic classification of the Earth to analyse the data from the Palestinian meteorological station for the period 1993-2008, namely the simple continentality index, compensated thermicity index, annual ombrothermic index, water deficit and soil water reserves. Results: The application of a principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the Jerusalem type plots located to the right of axis 2 during 1993-1997 were affected by precipitation, simple continentality index and annual ombrothermic index, with a large proportion of the variance explained by axes 1 (97.57%) and 2 (1.656%). Conclusion: as a conclusion,  fig trees were adapted to a dry to humid ombrotype and an inframediterranean to mesomediterranean thermotype, characterised by dry summers with temperatures between 18-30o C; the optimum fig yield is obtained with simple thermicity index values of 18-22, an annual ombrothermic index of over 2.5, and a compensated thermicity index of 250-450.


Keywords


Palestine, Jerusalem, fig, climate change, yield

Full Text:

PDF

References


References

Kislev, Mordachai E., Hartmann, Anat & Bar-Yosef, Ofer, 2006a. Early Domesticated Fig in the Jordan Valley. Science 312 (5778): 1372.doi:10.1126/science.1125910.

Kislev, Mordachai E., Hartmann, Anat & Bar-Yosef, Ofer, 2006b. Response to Comment on "Early Domesticated Fig in the Jordan Valley ".Science 314(5806), doi:10.1126/science.1133748.

Lev-Yadun, Simacha, Neeman, Gidi, abbo, Shahal & Flaishman, Moshe A.,1683, 2006. Comment on "Early Domesticated Fig in the Jordan Valley ".Science 314(5806) doi:10.1126/science.1132636.

Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics PCBS, 2009. http://pcbs.gov.ps/Downloads/book1620.pdf

UN Food & Agriculture Organization. Production of figs by countries, 2011. Retrieved 2013-08-2.

Ighbareyeh J. M. H., Cano-Ortiz A., Cano Carmona E., 2015a. Study of Biology and Bioclimatology of Date Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) to Optimize Yield and Increase Economic in Jericho and Gaza Cities of Palestine. International Journal of Research Studies in Biosciences, 3,1-8. http://www.arcjournals.org.

Ighbareyeh J.M.H., and Cano Carmona, E., 2018a. A Phytosociological of Plant Communities and Biodiversity in the East-South of Idna Village- Hebron of Palestine. International Journal of Geosciences, 9, 44-58. https://doi.org/10.4236/ijg.2018.91003.

Ighbareyeh, J. M. H. , Cano-Ortiz, A., E. Cano Carmona, Suliemieh, A. A. A. and Ighbareyeh, M. M. H., 2017b. Flora endemic rare and bioclimate of Palestine. Open Access Library Journal, 4: e3977. https:// DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1103977.

Ighbareyeh, J. M. H., A. Cano-Ortiz & E. Cano, 2014a. Biological and bioclimatic basis to optimize plant production: Increased economic areas of Palestine. Agricultural Science Research Journal 4,10- 20. http://www.resjournals.com/ARJ.

Ighbareyeh, J. M. H., A. Cano-Ortiz, E. Cano Carmona, Mohammed M. H. Ighbareyeh, Asma A. A. Suliemieh, 2015h. Modelling of Biology and Bioclimatology Applied on Plant in Palestine. Swift Journal of Agricultural Research,1, 21-27. http://www.swiftjournals.org/sjar.

Ighbareyeh, J. M. H., Cano-Ortiz A., Cano E., 2014b. Case Study: Analysis of the Physical Factors of Palestinian Bioclimate. American Journal of Climate Change, 3, 223-231 http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajcc.2014.32021 .

Ighbareyeh, J. M. H., Cano-Ortiz A., Cano E., Mohammed M. H. Ighbareyeh, Asmaa A. A. Suliemieh, 2016b. Effect of Biology, Climatic and Bioclimatic Applied Studies on Plant: to Increase the Economy and Maintaining Food Security in the Jerusalem Occupied of Palestine. International Journal of Research Studies in Biosciences, 4, 54-60. http://www.arcjournals.org.

Ighbareyeh, J. M. H., Cano-Ortiz, A., Cano Carmona, E., Mohammed M. H. Ighbareyeh, Asma A. A. Suliemieh and Shahir Hijjeh, 2017a. Impact of Bioclimate and climate factors on plant yield in the area of Jenin at the north of Palestine. International Journal of Current Research, 9, 44529-44535. http://www.journalcra.com.

Ighbareyeh, J. M. H., Cano-Ortiz, A., Suliemieh, A. A. A., Ighbareyeh, M.M.H. and Cano, E., 2015c. Biology and Bioclimatology Applied on Plant in Palestine. International Journal of Research Studies in Biosciences, 3, 79-86. http://www.arcjournals.org.

Ighbareyeh, J. M. H., Cano-Ortiz, A., Suliemieh, A. A. A., Ighbareyeh, M.M.H. and Cano, E., 2015d. Assessing Crop Yield Sustainability under the Climatic and Bioclimatic Change in the Area of Palestine. American Journal of Climate Change, 4, 48-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajcc.2015.41005.

Ighbareyeh, J. M. H., Cano-Ortiz, A., Suliemieh, A. A. A., Ighbareyeh, M.M.H. and Cano, E., 2015e. Study Effect of Biology and Bioclimatology Applied on Plant in the Area of Hebron at the South of Palestine. International Journal of Research Studies in Biosciences, 3, 56-64. http://www.arcjournals.org.

Ighbareyeh, J. M. H., Cano-Ortiz, A., Suliemieh, A. A. A., Ighbareyeh, M.M.H. and Cano, E., 2015f. Effect of Biology and Bioclimatology Applied on Plant in the Area of Jenin at the North of Palestine. International Journal of Research Studies in Bioscience, 3,1-6. http://www.arcjournals.org.

Ighbareyeh, J. M. H., Cano-Ortiz, A., Suliemieh, A. A. A., Ighbareyeh, M. M. H. and Cano, E., 2015g. Study of Climatology and Bioclimatology applied on Plant in Area of Hebron in Palestine. International Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 5, issue 1, 2231-5063.

Ighbareyeh, J. M. H., Cano-Ortiz, A., Suliemieh, A. A. A., Ighbareyeh, M.M.H. and Cano, E., 2015i. Effect of Biology and Bioclimatology Applied Studies on Plant in the Area of Jerusalem in Palestine. International Journal of Research Studies in Biosciences, 3, 135-140. http://www.arcjournals.org.

Ighbareyeh, J. M. H., Cano-Ortiz, A., Suliemieh, A. A. A., Ighbareyeh, M.M.H. and Cano, E., 2016a. Study of Biology and Bioclimatology Applied of Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca L.): to Increase the Economy and Maintaining Food Security in Palestine. International Journal of Research Studies in Biosciences, 4, 12-20. http://www.arcjournals.org.

Ighbareyeh, J. M. H., Cano-Ortiz, A., Suliemieh, A. A. A., Ighbareyeh, M.M.H. and Cano, E., 2016c. Modeling of biology and bioclimatology applied studies on plant in Palestine. International Journal of Development Research, 6, 9585-9590. http://www.journalijdr.com.

Ighbareyeh, J. M. H., Cano-Ortiz, A., Suliemieh, A. A. A., Ighbareyeh, M.M.H. and Cano E and Shahir hijjeh, 2016d. Effect of bioclimate factors on olive (Olea Europea L.) yield: To increase the economy and maintaining food security in Palestine. International Journal of Development Research, 6,10648-10652. http://www.journalijdr.com.

Ighbareyeh, J. M. H., Cano-Ortiz, A., Suliemieh, A.A.A., Ighbareyeh, M.M.H. and Cano, E., 2014c. Phytosociology with Other Characteristic Biologically and Ecologically of Plant in Palestine. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 3104-3118. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2014.520327.

Ighbareyeh, J. M. H., Cano-Ortiz, A., Suliemieh, A.A.A., Ighbareyeh, M.M.H. and Cano, E., 2015b. Assessment of Biology and Bioclimatology of Plant to Increase Economic in Palestine. International Journal of Research Studies in Biosciences, 3,1-8. http://www.arcjournals.org.

Ighbareyeh, J.M.H. and Carmona, E.C., 2017c. Impact of Climate and Bioclimate Factors on Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L .) Yield to Increase Economy and Achieve Maintaining Food Security of Palestine. Open Access Library Journal, 4: e4119. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1104119.

Ighbareyeh, J.M.H. and Carmona, E.C., 2018b. Impact of Environment Conditions on Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): To Optimal Production and Sustainability, Achieving Food Security and Increasing the Palestinian Economy. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 6, 62-73. https://doi.org/10.4236/gep.2018.62005.

Ighbareyeh, Jehad M. H. et al., 2018c. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) Yield and Climate Conditions of Palestine. Current Science, [S.l.], v. 114, n. Issue 8, mar. 2018. ISSN 0011-3891. http://www.currentscience.org/index.php/CS/article/view/285.

Rivas Martinez, S., Sanchez Mata D. and Costa M., 1999. North American boreal and western temperate forest vegetation (Syntaxonomical synopsis of the potential natural plant communities of North America, II). ItineraGeobot. 12: 5–316.

Rivas Martínez, S., 1996. Clasificación bioclimática de la Tierra. Folia Bot. Matritensis. 16:1-20.

Rivas-Martínez S., Rivas-Sáenz S., Penas A., 2011. Worldwide Bioclimatic Classification System. Global Geobotany vol. 1:1-634.

Jarque, C., Bera, A., 1980. Efficient tests for normality homoscedasticity and serial independence of regression residuals. Econometric Letters 6, 255-259.

Shapiro, S., Wilk, M., 1965. An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Biometrika 52, 591-611.

Shapiro, S., Wilk, M., Chen, H., 1968. A comparative study of various tests for normality. Journal of the American Statistical Association 63, 1343-1372.

Pearson, K., 1901. On Lines and Planes of Closest Fit to Systems of Points in Space. Philosophical Magazine. 2 (11): 559–572. doi:10.1080/14786440109462720.

Hotelling, H., 1933. Analysis of a complex of statistical variables into principal components. Journal of Educational Psychology, 24, 417–441, and 498–520.

Gayen, A.K., 1951. The frequency distribution of the product moment correlation coefficient in random samples of any size draw from non-normal universes. Biometrika. 38: 219–247. doi:10.1093/biomet/38.1-2.219.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.