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Life Cycle-GHG emissions of molasses-based Ethanol in Thailand based on Input-output model

Eakkaporn Nawapanan, Shabbir H. Gheewala, Sate Sampattagul


The severely of environmental impact issue of world is global warming can lead to seriously climate change, natural resources or emerging disease. Energy industry sector is associated with emissions of global warming due to the world’s overall energy consumption is increasing dramatically, the alternative fuel from plants has been promoted to substitute fossil fuel. Thailand’s agricultural products can be processed into ethanol to produce an alternative energy especially sugarcane and molasses. Therefore, when we consider with powerful of life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental whole life cycle process. It can be applied with the input-output analysis in term of a physical unit, we call physical input-output model to evaluate environmental impacts. Thus, the aim of this study is to create the physical input-output model in order to evaluate the life cycle GHG emissions of molasses-based ethanol in Thailand. Following the concept, the total GHG emissions by ethanol production including direct and indirect emissions, amounted to 420 MtonCO2-eq/yr. More than 70 % of GHG emissions arise from ethanol production. Meanwhile, the emissions intensities of life cycle GHG emissions are 0.66 kg CO2-eq/Liter of ethanol, was from cultivation; 0.15 kg CO2-eq/Liter of ethanol, sugar production; 0.04 kg CO2-eq/Liter of ethanol and ethanol production 0.47 kg CO2-eq/Liter of ethanol. From the finding of this study, it is extended to continue study to evaluate in other green indicators such as environmentally adjust indicator and possible reduction strategies of the ethanol industry with green value added or green GDP in the future.

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