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Evidence of Placental Triacylglycerol Lipase Activity in Macrosomic Infants

Wissal Ben Ahmed, Fethi Mrayhi, Amel Achour, Afef Masmoudi, Dalenda Chelli, Hela Chelli, Sellema Bahri


Aim (Background): Fetal macrosomia is the delivery of a new born whose weight is 4 kg or more. In our study we aimed in the first part to describe the maternal characteristics and of macrosomic infants and in the second part to investigate the possible association between a triacylglycerol (TAG) lipolytic enzyme extracted from placental villi and macrosomia.

Material and methods: BMI, age, triglyceride level, family history of macrosomia and placental triacylglycerol lipase in twenty mothers of macrosomic newborns (baby weight is equal or exceed 4 kg) were compared to 20 controls (birth weight is less than 4 kg).

 Results: In higher maternal age (over than 35 years old) and weight, lipid analyses indicated an elevated maternal triglyceride level (maternal hypertriglyceridemia).These results were associated with macrosomia with a higher prevalence of male macrosomic fetuses estimated at 65%. Cases specific triacylglycerol lipase activity was higher than that of controls with an enhancement of 35%.

Conclusion: Maternal age and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher chance of fetal macrosomia. The true placental triacylglycerol lipase showed a higher specific activity in macrosomic fetal placental villi which may be related to the alteration of the control of lipases and to the maternal lipid metabolic disorder at the third trimester of pregnancy.

Maternal and fetal surveillance is recommended during this high-risk pregnancy in order to prevent long term pathologies and to reduce its negative outcomes for both mother and fetus.

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