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The Effect of Environmental Factors on the thermal comfort of Tongkonan, Toraja Traditonal House, Indonesia

Adrianus Bannepadang, June-ichiro Giorgos Tsutsumi, Mohammad Asaduzzaman, Ryo Nakamatsu, Laila Akter Siddiquea, Pascarianto Putra Bura


Quick development and urbanisation has led to an increased number of building constructions in Tongkonan, Toraja, Indonesia. Urbanisation is produced at temperatures 30 to 400C in the city center. Heat Island footprint is a term used to describe the total amount of green house gas (GHG) emissions for which an individual/process/organization/activity is responsible. For that reason this study examined the effects of environmental factors on the thermal comfort of Tongkonan, Toraja traditional house. Ground measurements were conducted in Toraja and along a major nearest city. Three measurements were taken in three types of house: air temperature and corresponding humidity; surface temperatures of house, Solar Radiation; and wind speed. Temperatures were measured in different situations because different types of houses were used for this experiment. The some room surface temperature can be reached 40°C which directly affects inhabitants body temperature, the main source of heat stroke in humans. Location, weather conditions and population density were analysed.  The house surface temperature in a densely inhabited area was higher than that in a low-density area. The air temperature and humidity on the traditional house highly reflected a variation in air temperature (36 °C) and humidity (67%), depending on location, direct solar radiation and population density. Thermal pictures of different emissions for the chosen simulation were generated and indicate how emissions are distributed in houses. 

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