Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Cover Image

Designing and Manufacturing of Force Measuring System for Cervical Manipulation and Mobilization

BoRam Eo, HanSuk Jung, JooHyun Ham, Toshifumi Kuwaoka, Minae Amano, MinJi Kim

Abstract


[Purpose] To design, manufacture, and assess system safety for measuring peak force during high-velocity low-amplitude (HVLA) thrust and joint mobilization in healthy people without neck pain.

[Subjects and Methods] Individuals registered with KCS were divided into HVLA (n=24) and joint-mobilization groups (n=34), and peak force was measured twice. In each group, the participants’ characteristics were classified by sex, age, height, body weight, and career for comparison within and between intervals. The cervical range of motion (ROM) between the first and second measurements, as well as before and after the experiment, were compared for each group.

[Result] In the HVLA group, there were differences between the first and second measurements in the ≤44 years, 45–50 years, and 56–65 kg groups (p<0.05), but no differences according to sex, height, or career (p>0.05) or between the first and second measurements in the overall group (n=24) (p>0.05). In the joint-mobilization group, there were differences between the ≤55 kg and between the ≤55 and 56–65 kg groups (p<0.05), but no differences according to sex, height, or career (p>0.05) or between the first and second measurements in the overall group (n=34) (p>0.05). Both groups had increased cervical ROM after the experiment than before (p<0.05).

[Conclusion] The measurement system comprised a pressure sensor, Arduino hardware, and software to measure the peak force of the cervical spine; there were no differences between the first and second measurements for each group, but comparing the intergroup differences proved useful. Subsequent studies should compare more measurements and consider participant characteristics.

Keywords


Cervical manipulation, Cervical mobilization, Chiropractic, High velocity low amplitude, Peak force, Safety

Full Text:

PDF

References


Albuquerque FC, Hu YC, Dashti SR, Alba AA, Clark JC, Alkire B, Theodore N, McDougall CG, 2011. Craniocervical arterial dissections as sequelae of chiropractic manipulation: patterns of injury and management. J Neurosurg. 115(6), 1197-1205.

Asavasopon S, Jankoski J, Godges JJ, 2005. Clinical diagnosis of vertebrobasilar insufficiency: resident’s case problem. J Orthop Sport Phys Ther. 35(10), 645-650.

Bergmann TF, Peterson DH, 2002. Chiropractic technique. Mosby, 3rd ed., pp. 68-381.

Bolton PS, 2006. Spinal manipualation and spinal mobilization influence different axial sensory beds. Med Hypothese. 66(2), 258-62.

Chiradejnant A, Latimer J, Maher CG, 2002. Forces applied during manual therapy to patients with low back pain. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 25(6), 362-369.

Choi HS, Choi YI, Son SK, Choi CW, Im HB, Kim DH, Jeong YJ, 2012. The Domestic Trend of Chuna Treatments of Lumbar Spinal Disorder. The Journal of Korea CHUNA Manual Medicine for Spine & Nerves, 7(2), 25-38.

Classidy JD, Quan JA, LaFrance LJ, Yong-Hing K, 1992. The effect of manipulation on pain and range of motion in cevical spine: a pilot study. J Manipulative Physio Ther. 15(8), 495-500.

Conradie M, Smit E, Louw M, Prinsloo M, Loubser L, Wilsdorf A, 2004. Do experienced physiotherpists apply equal magnitude of force during a grade I central PA on the cervical spine. S Afr J Physiother 60(4): 18-25.

Dewitte V. Beernaert A, Vanthillo B, Barbe T, Danneels L, Cagnie B, 2014. Articular dyfunction patterns in patients with mechanical neck pain: A Clinical algorithm to guide specific mobilization and manipulation techniques. Man Ther. 19(1), 2-9.

Forand D, Drover J, Suleman Z, Symons B, Herzog W, 2004. The force applied by female and male chiropractors during thoracic spinal manipulation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 27(1), 49-56.

Gong W, 2015. The effect of cervical joint manipulation, based on passive motion analysis, on cervical lordosis, forward head posture, and cervical ROM in university students with abnormal posture of the cervical spine. J Phys Ther Sci. 27(5), 1609-1611.

Gross AR, Kay T, Hondras M, Goldsmith C, Haines T, Peloso P, Kennedy C, Hoving J, 2002. Manual therapy for mechanical neck disorders: a systemic review. Man Ther. 7(3), 131-149.

Gwon YW, Kim JM, 1999. Cauda Equina Syndrome after Spinal Manipulative Therapy – A case report –. Journal of Korean Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine. 23(2), 439-443.

Haldeman S, Kohlbeck FJ, McGregor M, 2002. Stroke, cerebral artery dissection, and cervical spine manipulation therapy. J Neuro. 249(8), 1098-1104.

Herzog W, Leonard TR, Symons B, Tang C, Wuest S, 2012. Vertebral artery strains during high-speed, low amplitude cervical spinal manipulation. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 22(5), 740-746.

Herzog W, 2010. The biomechanics of spinal manipulation. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 14(3), 280-286.

Hufnagel A, Hammers A, Schonle PW, Bohm KD, Leonhardt G, 1999. Stroke after chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine. J Neurol. 246(8), 683-688.

Jeong SY, Lee CR, 2015. Research about Adverse Effect of Spinal Manipulation Therapy: Systemic Review of Literature in Korea and Pubmed. The Journal of Korea CHUNA Manual Medicine for Spine & Nerves. 10(1): 15-33.

Jung HS, Ham JH, Choi SB, Choi JO, 2011. Effects of Chiropractic, US, and Taping Method on Active Cervical Rotation ROM of SCM Muscle. Journal of Wellness. 6(3), 253-264.

Kang DM, 2003. Relationship Between Musculo-skeletal Diseases and Work Intensity Among Shipyard workers. Ph.D. Dissertation, Kosin college graduate school.

Kawchuk GN, Herzog W, Hasler EM, 1992. Forces generated during spinal manipulative therapy of the cervical spine: a pilot study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 15(5), 275-278.

Kawchuk GN, Herzog W, 1993. Biomechanical charaterization(fingerprinting) of five novel methods of cervical manipulation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 16(9), 573-577.

Kerry R, Taylor AJ, 2006. Cervical arterial dysfunction assessment and manual therapy. Man Ther. 11(4), 243-253.

Kerry R, 2002. Pre-manipulative procedures for the cervical spine: new guidelines and a time for dialectics: knowledge, risks, evidence and consent. Physiotherapy. 88(7), 417-420.

Kim KB, Park TY, Lee JH, Kong CH, Lee SK, Shin BC, Kwon YD, Song YS, 2008. Review on Efficacy and safety of Manipulation Therapy including chuna Manipulation. J Oriental Rebab Med. 18(4), 103-120.

Lee BY, Jang G, Lee GJ, Song YK, Lim HH, 2007. A report of present situation about the adverse reactions of chuna manipulation in Korea. The Journal of Korea CHUNA Manual Medicine for Spine & Nerves. 2(2), 161-170.

Lee KP, Carlini WG, McCormick GF, Albers GW, 1995. Neurologic complications following chiropractic manipulation: a survey of california neurogists. Neurology. 45(6): 402-406.

Lee RYW, McGregor AH, Bull AM Wragg P, 2005. Dynamic response of the cervical spine to posteroanterior mobilisation. Clin Biomech. 20(2), 228-231.

Lee YJ, 2014. Manipulative Therapy. Korea J Fam Pract. 4(3), 194-202.

Loew M, Heichel TO, Lehner B, 2005. Intararticular lesions in primary frozen shoulder after manipulation under general anesthesia. J Shouler Elbow Surg. 14(1), 16-21.

Magarey ME, Rebbeck T, Coughlan B, Grimmer K, Rivett DA, Refshauge K, 2004. Pre-manipulative testing of the cervical spine review, revision and new clinical guidelines. Man Ther. 9(2), 95-108.

Mann T, Refshauge KM, 2001. Causes of complications from cervical spine manipulation. Aust J Physiothera. 47, 255-266.

Manske RC, Lehcrka BJ, Reiman MP, Loudon JE, 2018. Orthopedic joint mobilization and manipulation: An evidence-based approach, Human Kinetics, pp. 38.

McNair PJ, Portero P, Chiquet C, 2007. Acture neck pain: Cervical spine range of motion and position sense prior to and after joint mobilization. Man Ther. 12(4), 390-394.

Paciaroni M, Bogousslavsky J, 2009. Cerebrovascular complications of neck manipulation. Eur Neurol 61(2), 112-118.

Park CH, Jeon DJ, Lee SJ, Gwon BS, Kim SC, 2001. Atlantoaxial Subluxation Caused by Spinal Manipulation – A case report - . Journal of Korean Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine. 25(4), 720-723.

Park JH, 2016. The Effect of using Computer & Smart-phone on Decreased Work Efficiency due to Musculoskeletal Disorders; Mediating Effect of Perceived Musculoskeletal Disorders. Journal of distribution science. 14(3), 55-62.

Park TY, Gong JC, Lee YJ, Song YS, Shin BC, 2007. The safety of Lumbar Manipulation; Adverse Reaction, Mechanism and Cases Reports. Journal of Oriental Rehabilitation Medicine. 17(3), 191-206.

Pickar JG, 2002: Neurophysioligcal effects of spinal manipulation. Spine J. 2(5), 357-377.

Rao RV, Balthillaya G, Prabhu A, Kamath A, 2017. Immediate effects Maitland mobilization versus Mulligan mobilization with movement in osteoarthritis knee-A randomized crossover trial. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 30, 1-8.

Reuter U, Hämling M, Kavuk I, Einhäupl, Schielke E, 2006. Vertebral artery dissections after chiropractic neck manipulation in Germany over three years. J Neurol. 253(6), 724-730.

Rubinstein SM, 2008. Adverse events following chiropractic care for subjects with neck or low-back pain: do the benefits outweigh the risks? J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 31(6), 461-464.

Snodgrass SJ, Rivett DA, Robertson VJ, Stojanovski E, 2010a: Cervical spine mobilisation forces applied by physiotherapy students. Physiology. 96, 120-129.

Snodgrass SJ, Rivett DA, Robertson VJ, Stojanovski E, 2010b. A comparison of cervical spine mobilization forces applied by experienced and novice physiotherapists. J Orthop Sport Phys Ther. 40(7), 392-401.

Snodgrass SJ, Rivett DA, Robertson VJ, 2007. Manual forces applied during cervical mobilization. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 30(1), 17-25.

So YJ, Yoo YK, 2014. The Effects of Smartphone Use on Muscle Fatigue and Pain and, Cervical Range of Motion Among Subjects With and Without Neck Muscle Pain. Physical Therapy Korea. 21(3), 28-37.

Starmer DJ, Guist BP, Tuff TR, Warren SC, William MG, 2016. Changes in manipulative peak force modulation and time to peak thrust among first-year chiropractic students following a 12 week detraining period. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 39(4), 311-317, 2016.

Symons BP, Leonard T, Herzog W, 2002. Internal forces sustained by the vertebral artery during spinal manipulative therapy. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 25(8), 504-510.

Triano JJ, Descarreaux M, Dugas C, 2012: Biomechanics-review of approaches for performance training in spinal manipulation. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 22(5), 723-729.

Twomey LT, 1992. A rationale for the treatment of back pain and joint pain by manual therapy. Phsy Thera. 72(12), 885-892.

Vidal PG, 2004. Vertebral artery testing as an clinical screen for vertebrobasilar insufficiency: is there may diagnostic value?. Orthopaed Pract. 16(4), 7-12.

Whittingham W, Nillsons N, 2001. Active range of motion in the cervical spine increases after spinal manipulation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 24(9), 552-555.

Wuest S, Symons B, Leonard T, Herzog W, 2010. Preliminary report: biomechanics of vertebral artery segments C1-C6 during cervical spinal manipulation. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 33(4), 273-278.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.