Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Cover Image

Lavicidal and pupicidal activities of Petroselinum crispum seed essential oil on Culex pipiens and Culiseta longiareolata mosquitoes



Background: The use of synthetic insecticides to control mosquitoes has adverse effects on the environment and also causes increasing resistance. As a result, other alternatives have been developed, among them the use of plant extracts represented mainly by essential oils, which exhibit acute toxic effects against insects, including mosquitoes.

 Materials and Methods: The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of Petroselinum crispum (Umbellifereae) essential oil and to evaluate its impact on mortalities, morphometric measurements (weight, volume) and the biochemical contents (proteins, carbohydrates and lipids) in larvae and pupae of two most abundant mosquito species in Tebessa (East Algeria), Culex pipiens and Culiseta longiareolata (Diptera: Culicidae). The essential oil was tested at different concentrations ranging between 5 and 60 ppm on newly molted third-instar larvae, between 10 and 70 ppm on newly molted fourth-instar larvae and between 10 and 150 ppm on instar pupae of the two species of mosquito under standard laboratory conditions according to the World Health Organization recommendations.

 Results: Results of phytochemical screening of P. crispum essential oil revealed the pres­ence of flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, terpenoids and steroids and twenty-five compounds have been identified by GC/MS.  The major compounds were Pulegone (51.06%) and D-Limonene (18.77%). Insecticidal tests revealed that this essential oil exhibited larvicidal and pupicidal properties with dose-response relationship. P. crispum essential oil caused a decrease in the weight, the volume and the energy reserves in treated larvae and pupae of the two tested mosquito species.

 Conclusion: Due to its mosquitocidal efficacy, P. Crispum essential oil could be considered as an attractive candidate for further study in monitoring resistance of mosquito vectors.


Petroselinum crispum, essential oils, Toxicity, Culex pipiens, Culiseta longiareolata.

Full Text:



Abbott, W.B., 1925. A method for computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. Journal of Economic Entomology. 18, 265–267.

Adams, R.P., 2007. Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry. Carol Stream, USA, Allured Publishing Corporation.

Aguiar, R.W.S., Santos, S.F.D., Morgado, F.D.S., Ascencio, S.D., Lopes, M.D.M., Viana, K.F., Didonet, J., Ribeiro, B.M., 2015. Insecticidal and repellent activity of Siparuna guianensis Aubl. (Negramina) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. PLoS One. 10, 1–14.

Alattwani, R.R.H., Abudaljalil, R.K., Alhashimi, R.A.H., 2016. Chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Petroselinum crispum (Mill) nym essential oil isolated from maysan city iraq. Global Journal of Advanced Research. 3, 151–156.

Al-Hadi, AH., Al Rahbi, S.S., Akhtar, M.S., Said, S., Weli, A., Al-Riyami, Q., 2013. Phytochemical screening, antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of Petroselinum crispum leaves grown in Oman. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 9, 61–65.

Ali, A.M., Mohamed, D.S., Shaurub, E.S.H., Elsayed, A.M., 2017. Antifeedant activity and some biochemical effects of garlic and lemon essential oils on Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Entomology and Zoological Studies. 5(3), 1476–1482.

Ali, N.S., Ali, S.S., Shakoori, A.R., 2014. Biochemical response of malathion-resistant and susceptible adults of Rhyzopertha dominica to the sublethal doses of deltamethrin. Pakistan Journal of Zoology. 46, 853–861.

Amer, A., Mehlhorn, H., 2006. Larvicidal effects of various essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex larvae (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitology Research. 99, 466–472.

Andrade-Ochoa, S., Sánchez-Aldana, D., Chacón-Vargas, K.F., Rivera-Chavira, B.E., Sánchez-Torres, L.E., Camacho, A.D., Nogueda-Torres, B., Nevárez-Moorillón, G.V., 2018. Oviposition deterrent and larvicidal and pupaecidal activity of seven essential oils and their major components against Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae): Synergism–antagonism Effects. Insects. 9, 1–17

Anonym., 1983. Informal consultation on insect growth regulators. WHO/VBC/83.

Ascrizzi, R., Fraternale, D., Flamini, G., 2018. Photochemical response of parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss) grown under red light: The effect on the essential oil composition and yield. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, B: Biology. 185, 185-191.

Belaqziz, R., Harrak, R., Romane, A., Oufdou, K., El Alaoui ElFels, M.A., 2010. Antimicrobial and insecticidal activities of the endemic Thymus broussonetti Boiss. and Thymus maroccanus Ball. Records of Natural Products. 4, 230-237.

Borges, I.B., Cardoso , B.K., Silva, E.S., de Oliveira, J.S., da Silva, R.F., de Rezende, C.M., Gonçalves, J.E., Junior, R.P., de Souza, S.G.H., Gazim, Z.C., 2016. Evaluation of performance and chemical composition of Petroselinum crispum essential oil under different conditions of water deficit. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 11, 480-486.

Bouabida, H., Tine-djebbar F, Tine, S., Soltani, N., 2017. Activity of a lipid synthesis inhibitor (spiromesifen) in Culiseta longiareolata (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 7, 1120–1124.

Bouaziz, A., Boudjelida, H., Soltani, N., 2011. Toxicity and perturbation of the metabolite contents by a chitin synthesis inhibitor in the mosquito larvae of Culiseta longiareolata. Annals of Biological Research. 2, 134–142.

Boudjelida, H., Bouaziz, A., Soin, T., Smagghe, G., 2005. Effects of ecdysone agonist halofenozide against Culex pipiens. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 83, 115–123.

Bouguerra, N., Tine-Djebbar, F., Soltani, N., 2018. Effect of Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) Essential oil on energy reserves and biomarkers in Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) from Tebessa (Algeria). Essential Oil Bearing Plants Journal. 21, 1082–1095.

Bradford, M.M., 1976. A rapid and sensitive method of the quantitation microgram quantities of protein utilising the principale dye binding. analytic. The Biochemistry. 72, 248–254.

British pharmacopoeia. 1988. London: HMSO. 2, A137-A138.

Brunhes, J., Rhaim, A., Geoffroy, B., Angel, G., Hervy, J.P., 1999. Les moustiques de l'Afrique méditerranéen. Logiciel d'identification et d'enseignement. IRD edition.

Canavoso, L.E., Jouni, Z.E., Karnas, K.J., Pennington, J.E., Wells, M.A., 2001. Fat metabolism in insects. Annual Review of Nutrition. 21, 23–46.

Chansang, A., Champakaew, D., Junkum, A., Jitpakdi, A., Amornlerdpison, D., Kongdee Aldred, A., Riyong, D., Wannasan, A., Intirach, J., Muangmoon, R., and Pitasawat, B., 2018. Synergy in the adulticidal efficacy of essential oils for the improvement of permethrin toxicity against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasites & Vectors. 11, 417.

Chauhan, E. S., Aishwarya, J., 2018. Nutraceuticals potential of Petroselinum Crispum: A review. International Journal on Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 7, 1–6.

Cohen, E., 2010. Advances in Insect Physiology: Insect Integument and Colour (Chap. 2 - Chitin Biochemistry: Synthesis, Hydrolysis and Inhibition). London (UK): Academic Press. p. 5–74.

Costa, A.A., Naspi, C.V., Lucia, A., Masuh, H.M., 2017. Repellent and larvicidal activity of the essential oil from Eucalyptus nitens Against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. 0, 1–7.

Craft, J.D., Setzer, W.N., 2017. The volatile components of parsley, Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss. American Journal of Essential Oils and Natural Products. 5, 27–33.

Díaz-Maroto, M.C., Pérez-Coello, M.S., Cabezudo, M.D., 2002. Effect of different drying methods on the volatile components of parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.). European Food Research and Technology. 215, 227–230.

Dong, X., Jiang, Z.T., Jiang, S., Li, R., 2017. Composition comparison of essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation from Petroselinum crispum grown in China. Essential Oil Bearing Plants Journal. 20, 368–374.

Dris, D., Tine-Djebbar, F., Soltani, N., 2017a. Lavandula dentata essential oils: chemical composition and larvicidal activity against Culiseta longiareolata and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). African Entomology. 25, 387–394.

Dris, D., Tine-Djebbar, F., Bouabida, H., Soltani, N., 2017. Chemical composition and activity of an Ocimum basilicum essential oil on Culex pipiens larvae: Toxicological, biometrical and biochemical aspects. South African Journal of Botany. 113, 362–369.

Duchateau, G., Florkin, M., 1959. Sur la tréhalosémie des insectes et sa signification. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology. 67, 306–314.

El-Zaeddi, H., Calin-Sanchez, A., Martinez-Tome, J., Noguera-Artiaga, L., Burlo, F., Carbonell-Barrachina, A.A., 2016. Irrigation dose and plant density affect the essential oil content and sensory quality of parsley (Petroselinum sativum). Scientia Horticulturae. 206, 1–6.

Farjana, T., Tuno, N., 2013. Multiple blood feeding and host-seeking behavior in Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. 50, 838–846.

Farzaei, M.H., Abbasabadi, Z., Ardekani, M.R.S., Rahimi, R., Farzaei, F., 2013. Parsley: a review of ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and biological activities. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 15, 815–826.

Goldsworthy, A.C., Mordue, W., Guthkelch, J., 1972. Studies on insect adipokinetic hormones. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 18, 306–314.

Gray, E.M., Bradley, T.J., 2003. Metabolic rate in female Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae): Age, size, activity, and feeding effects. Journal of Medical Entomology. 40, 903–911.

Guenez, R., Tine-Djebbar, F., Tine, S., Soltani, N., 2018. Larvicidal efficacy of Mentha pulegium essential oil against Culex pipiens L. and Aedes caspius P. larvae. World Journal of Environmental Biosciences. 7, 1–7.

Kalita, B., Bora, S., Sharma, A.K., 2013. Plant essential oils as mosquito repellent. International Journal of Research and Development in Pharmacy and Life Sciences. 3, 741–747.

Khalil, A.F., Elkatry, H.O., Hanaa, F., El Mehairy, H.F., 2015. Protective effect of peppermint and parsley leaves oils against hepatotoxicity on experimental rats. Annals of Agricultural Science. 60, 353–359.

Harborne, J.B., 1998. Phytochemical Methods. London: Chapman and Hall.

Jennings, W., Shibamoto, T., 1980. Qualitative analysis of flavour and fragrance volatile by glass capillary gas chromatography. New York: Academic Press.

Kaufmann, C., Brown, M.R., 2008. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and flight performance by a hypertrehalosaemic hormone in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Journal of Insect Physiology. 54(2), 367–377.

Louli, V., Folas, G., Voutsas, E., Magoulas, K., 2004. Extraction of parsley seed oil by supercritical CO2. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 30, 163–174.

Mahmoodi, L., Oroj Valizadegan, O., Mahdavi, V., 2014. Fumigant toxicity of Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae) essential oil on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) adults under greenhouse conditions. Journal of Plant Protection Research. 54, 294–299.

Manimaran, A., Cruz, M.M.J.J. , Muthu, C., Vincent, S., Ignacimuthu, S., 2012. Larvicidal and knockdown effects of some essential oils against Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles stephensi (Liston). Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology. 3, 855–862.

Maroufpoor, M., Ebadollahi, A., Vafaee, Y., Badiee, E., 2016. Chemical composition and toxicity of the essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. and Petroselinum crispum L. against three stored-product insect pests. Essential Oil Bearing Plants Journal. 19, 1993–2002.

Mert, A., Timur, M., 2017. Essential oil and fatty acid composition and antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of parsley seeds (Petroselinum crispum) grown in Hatay region. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research. 51, 437–440.

Monnerat, R., Dumas, V., Ramos, F., Pimentel, L., Nunes, A., Sujii, E., Praca, L., Vilarinhos, P., 2012. Evaluation of different larvicides for the control of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Culicidae) under simulated field conditions. Bioassay. 7, 3.

Naqqash, M.N., Gökçe, A., Bakhsh, A., Salim, M., 2016. Insecticide resistance and its molecular basis in urban insect pests. Parasitology Research. 115, 1363–1373.

Nawel, O., Ahmed, H., Donia zed, E., 2012. Effect of the essential oils from parsley and fennel seeds on the growth of Lactobacillus casei Subsp Rhamnosus. Journal of Biotechnology Biomaterials. 2, 1–5.

Nwabor O.F., Nnamonu, E.I., Martins, P.E., Odiachi, O., 2019. Synthetic insecticides, phytochemicals and mosquito resistance. Academia Journal of Biotechnology. 5(8), 118-125.

Pavela, R., 2015. Essential oils for the development of eco-friendly mosquito larvicides: A review. Industrial Crops and Products. 76, 174-187.

Perumalsamy, H., Kim, N., Ahn, Y., 2009. Larvicidal activity of compounds isolated from Asarum heterotropoides against Culex pipiens pallens, Aedes aegypti, and Ochlerotatus togoi (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. 46, 1420–1423.

Petropoulos, S.A., Daferera, D., Polissiou, M.G., Passam, H.C., 2008. The effect of water deficit stress on the growth, yield and composition of essential oils of parsley. Scientia Horticulturae. 115, 393–397.

Pineda, R., Vizcaíno, S., García, C.M., Gil, J.H., Durango, D., 2018. Antifungal activity of extracts, essential oil and constituents from Petroselinum crispum against Colletotrichum acutatum. Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín. 71(3), 8563-8572.

Rehimi, N., Soltani, N., 1999. Laboratory evaluation of Alsystin, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, against Culex pipiens pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae): effects on development and cuticle secretion. Journal of Applied Entomology. 123, 437–441.

Rivero, A., Vézilier, J., Weill, M., Read, A.F., Gandon, S., 2010. Insecticide control of vector-borne diseases: When is insecticide resistance a problem? PLoS Pathogens. 6, 1–9.

Rodriguez-Ortega, M.J., Rodriguez-Ortega, M.J., Grosvik, B.E., Rodriguez-Ariza, A., Goksoyr, A., Lopez-Barea, J., 2003. Changes in protein expression profiles in bivalve molluscs (Chamaelea gallina) exposed to four model environmental pollutants. Proteomics. 3, 1535-1543.

Sarma, R., Mahanta, S., Khanikor, B., 2017. Insecticidal activities of the essential oil of Aegle marmelos (Linnaeus, 1800) against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823). Universal Journal of Agricultural Research. 5, 304–311.

Scott, L.J., 2016. Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine: A review in the prevention of dengue disease. Drugs. 76, 1301–1312.

Sharma, P., Mohan, L., Dua, K.K., Srivastava, C.N., 2011. Status of carbohydrate, protein and lipid profile in the mosquito larvae treated with certain phytoextracts. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 4(4), 301–304.

Shibko, S., Koivistoinen, P., Tratnyek, C.A., Newhall, A.R., Friedman, L., 1966. A method for sequential quantitative separation and determination of protein, RNA, DNA, lipid, and glycogen from a single rat liver homogenate or from a subcellular fraction. Analytical Biochemistry. 19(3), 514–528.

Soonwera, M., Phasomkusolsil, S., 2017. Adulticidal, larvicidal, pupicidal and oviposition deterrent activities of essential oil from Zanthoxylum limonella Alston (Rutaceae) against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 7, 967–978.

Stankovic, M.Z., Nicolic, N., Stanojevic, L., Cakic, M.D., 2004. The effect of hydrodistillation technique on the yield and composition of essential oil from the seed of Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. ex. A.W. Hill. Chemistry and Industry. 58, 409–412.

Stankovic, M.Z., Nicolic, N., Stanojevic, L., Cakic, M.D., 2005. The effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. ex. A.W. Hill) seeds milling and fermentation conditions on essential oil yield and composition. CI and CEQ. 11, 177–182.

Sugumaran, M., 2010. Chemistry of cuticular sclerotization. Advances in Insect Physiology. 39, 151–209.

Suttthanont, N., Choochote, W., Tuetun, B., Junkum, A., Jitpakdi, A., Chaithong, U., 2010. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of edible plant-derived essential oils against pyrethroid-susceptible and-resistant strains of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Vector Ecology. 35, 106–115.

Tadros, L.K., El-Rafey, H.H., Elfadaly, H.A., Taher, M.A, Elhafny, M.A., 2017. Phenolic profile, essential oil composition, purification of kaempferol 3- arabinofuranoside and antimicrobial activity of parsley cultivated in Dakhalia Governorate. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Biotechnology. Mansoura Univ. 8, 183 – 189.

Timmermann, S.E., Briegel, H., 1999. Larval growth and biosynthesis of reserves in mosquitoes. Journal of Insect Physiology. 45, 461–470.

Tine-Djebbar, F., Bouabida, H., Soltani, N., 2016. Spatio-temporal distribution of Culicidae in Tebessa area. Germany: European University Press.

Vatandoost, H., Dehkordi, A.S., Sadeghi, S.M., Davari, B., Karimian, F., Abai, M.R., Sedaghat, M.M., 2012. Identification of chemical constituents and larvicidal activity of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaffarian essential oil against two mosquito vectors Anopheles stephensi and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae). Experimental Parasitology. 132, 470–474.

Vokk, R., Lõugas, T., Mets, K., Kravets, M., 2011. Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and Parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss) from Estonia: Seasonal Differences in Essential Oil Composition. Agronomy Research. 9, 515–520.

Who., 2005. Guidelines for laboratory and field-testing of mosquito larvicides, Ref. WHO/ CDS/WHOPES/GCPP/ 13, 41p.


  • There are currently no refbacks.