Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Cover Image

Pond Storage Model to Enhance Urban Water Resources, in Kabul City

Shir Mohammad Omid, June-ichiro Giorgos Tsutsumi, Mohammad Hassan Hassanyar, Ryo Nakamatsu


The recent water reports shows that almost half of Kabul city settlements consume contaminated drinking water which displays perilous levels of chloride, fluoride, and harmful bacteria. The report further reveals that water samples whereas found to be rich in heavy ions and E coli, making the water unsafe for dinking, as research field I for chose the capital city of Afghanistan Kabul, as my research field since it is highly threatened by water scarcity.  This research focuses on the pond storage model as alternative to improve urban water resources in Kabul. It emphasizes on the growing and immediate need for clean water in Kabul city based on population growth and water scarcity. The text provides a brief introduction and data collected from the previous studies. Afghanistan is rich in water resources but poor in water infrastructure and management (2017, Zaryab. A, et al). The data were collected through questionnaires, site visits and reviewing international organisation reports. The researchers involve 120 households in answering the questionnaires, where they were asked about the quality, quantity, and accessibility of water in the city. The research suggests direct deflection from the river through intake channel to a highland pond and using solar energy, producing energy through supplying water by gravity to water net. Pond storage has been constructed in Okinawa prefecture of Japan, for multipurpose and successfully served the goals of the projects. In the same way, sustainability of the model is very high and adaptive for many parts in Kabul region especially in Panjshir River as an alternative model to enhancing water resources and generating power by its gravity force.


Waster Scarcity, Alternative Resource, Pond, Kabul City, Surface Water, Power Generation,

Full Text:



Akbari, M.A., Tahir, Mohammad, Litke, D.W., and Chornack, M.P., (2007). Ground-water levels in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, 2004–2007: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007–1294, 46 p.

Akhundzadah N. A., Nagata K., Noorzai F., Tokhi M. N. and Rasekhudin S. (2014). Study on Water Resources Development and Utilization Necessary for Water Supply to Kabul Metropolitan Area, Ministry of Energy and Water, Kabul Afghanistan, pp. 11-37.

ANDS. (2008).Water sector strategy for Afghanistan. Afghanistan National Development Strategy. Kabul, Afghanistan.

Beller consults, (2004). Feasibility Study for the Extension of the Kabul Water Supply System, Interim Report. (Funded by Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau (KfW)).

Bohannon, R.G., and Turner, K.J., (2005). Geologic map of quadrangle 3468, Chak Wardak-Syahgerd (509) and Kabul (510) quadrangles, Afghanistan: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2005–1107–A, 1: 250,000, 1 sh.

Broshears, R. E., Akbari, M. A., Chornack, M. P., Mueller, D. K., and Ruddy, B. C. (2005). Inventory of ground-water resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2005–5090, 34 p., Available at

Cruz, R.V., Harasawa, H., Lal, M., Wu, S., Anokhin, Y., Punsalmaa, B., Honda, Y., Jafari, M., Li, C., and Huu Ninh, N., (2007). Asia. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, Parry, M.L., Canziani, O.F., Palutikof, J.P., van der Linden, P.J., and Hanson, C.E., eds., Cambridge, U.K., Cambridge University Press, p. 469–506. DACAAR. (2012). UNHCR public water points water samples analyzed physical, bacteriological and chemical data

DACAAR/WSP, (2005- 2011), Water quality data ((physical, bacteriological and chemical).

Danish Committee for Aid to Afghan Refugees (DACAAR), (2011). “National groundwater monitoring wells network activities in Afghanistan”. From July 2007 to December 2010. DACAAR, Kabul, 23 pp.

Habib, H. (2014). Water related problems in Afghanistan. International Journal of EducationalStudies,1(3): 137–144. Hem, J.D. (1985). Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water. US Geol. Surv. Water Supp. Pap. 2254, third ed.

Houben, G., Niard, N., Tünnermeier, T., & Himmelsbach, T. (2009a). Hydrogeology of the Kabul Basin (Afghanistan), partI: aquifers andhydrology. HydrogeologyJournal,17(3): 665–677.

Houben, G., Tünnermeier, T., Eqrar, N., & Himmelsbach, T. (2009b). Hydrogeology of the Kabul Basin (Afghanistan), part II: groundwater geochemistry. Hydrogeology Journal, 17(4): 935–948.

JICA. (2011). Needs assessment survey for water resources management and development in Afghanistan. Japan International Cooperation Agency, Final Report.

Lashkaripour, G. R., & Hussaini, S. A. (2008). Water resource management in Kabul river basin, eastern Afghanistan. The Environmentalist, 28(3): 253–260.

M. Hassan Saffi, Leendert Vijselaar, (2007). Groundwater at Risk in Afghanistan

M. Hassan Saffi,M.Naim Eqrar (2011). Groundwater natural resources and quality concern in Kabul Basin, Afghanistan.

Mack, T.J., Chornack, M.P., and Taher, M.R., (2013). Groundwater-level trends and implications for sustainable water use in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan: Environment Systems and Decisions, v. 33, no. 3, p. 457–467. Accessed December 5, 2013. Available at

Mack T. J., Akbari M. A, Ashoor M. H., Chornack M. P., Tyler B. C., Douglas G. E., Bernard E. H., David W. L., Robert L. M, Niel L. P., Rezai M. T., Gabriel B. S, Verdin J. P. and Verstraeten I. M. (2010). Conceptual Model of Water resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan, 2-46.

Mack, T. J., Akbari, M. A., Ashoor, M. H., Chornack, M. P., Coplen, T. B., Emerson, D. G., Hubbard, B. E., Litke, D. W., Michel, R. L., Plum-mer, L. N., Rezai, M. T., Senay, G. B., Verdin, J. P., and Verstraeten, I. M. (2010b). Conceptual model of water resources in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2009–5262, 240 p., Available at

Mack,T.J.,Chornack,M.P.,Coplen,T.B.,PlummerL.N.,Rezai, M. T., andVerstraeten,I.M.(2010a). Availability of water in the Kabul Basin, Afghanistan: U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2010–3037, 4 p., Available at

Mack, T. J., Chornack, M. P., Vining, K. C., Amer, S. A., Zaheer, M. F., & Medlin, J. H. (2014a). Water resources activities of the US Geological Survey in Afghanistan from 2004 through 2014. USGS Fact Sheet, 2014 –3068 No. 265.

Mack, T. J., Chornack, M.P.,Flanagan,S.F.,andChalmers,A.T. (2014b). Hydrogeology and water quality of the Chakari Basin, Afghanistan, U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigation Report 2014–5113, 35 p., Available at

Master thesis, Omid Sh. M. (2015). Urban Water Demand and Improvement of Water Resources in Kabul, Afghanistan, Master thesis of Science in Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of the Ryukyus, Japan. Shir Mohammad, O., Tsutsumi, J,. 2015.

Nagarajan, R., Thirumalaisamy, S., and Lakshumanan, E. (2012). Impact of leachate on groundwater pollution due to nonengineered municipal solid waste landfill sites of erode city, Tamil Nadu, India. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering. 9(1): 1.

National Research Council, Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water, National Academy. Press, Washington DC, (1995). Available at

Norwegian Church Aid – Afghanistan Program (NCAAP), (2002). Guidelines for Sustainable Use of Groundwater in Afghanistan. April 2002.

Omid Sh. M. , Tsutsumi J. G. , Nakamatsu, R., Hassanyar, M. H., (2018). Assessment of Ground Water Level to Improve Water Resources in Kabul City, Afghanistan., International Journal of Technical Research and Applications., e-ISSN: 2320-8163; PP. 06-13

Qureshi, A. S. (2002). Water resources management in Afghanistan: the issues and options (49).

RECS International Inc.,Yachiyo Engineering Co., Ltd., CTI Engineering International Co., Ltd., Sanyu Consultants Inc. (2009). The Study for the Development of the Master Plan for the Kabul Metropolitan Area in the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan.

Saffi, Hassan, and Vijselaar, Leendert, (2007). Groundwater monitoring—Evaluation of groundwater data: Kabul, Afghanistan, DACAAR, p. 99.

Saffi M. H. (2011). Groundwater Natural Resources and Quality Concern in Kabul Basin, DACAAR, Kabul Afghanistan, 1-24.

Saffi,M.H. (2007). Groundwater resources at risk in Afghanistan. Danish Committee for Aid to Afghan Refugees, Scientific Investigation Report. Kabul, Afghanistan.

Saffi, M. H.,& Kohistani,A.J. (2013). Water resources potential, quality problems, challenges and solutions in Afghanistan. Danish Committee for Aid to Afghan Refugees. Kabul: Scientific Investigation Report.

Saffi, M. H., and Kohistani, A. J. (2014). Study on water quality status with respect to Fluoride contamination in the drinking water sources Balkh Province, Afghanistan. Danish Committee for Aid to Afghan Refugees, Scientific Investigation Report. Kabul, Afghanistan.

Saffi, M. H., and Kohistani, A. J. (2016). Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater in Panjsher Province Afghanistan. Danish Committee for Aid to Afghan Refugees, Scientific Investigation Report. Kabul, Afghanistan.

Shroder, J. F., and Ahmadzai, S. J. (2016). Transboundary water resources in Afghanistan: Climate change and land-use implications. Elsevier Inc. Sundem, L. (2014). Quality of drinking water in Afghanistan. Master thesis. Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Technology, Department of Environmental Sciences.

Thomas, V., and Eqrar, N. (2011). Managing water resources, scarcity, and climate shocks. Afghanistan Human Development Report Chapter 2. Centre for Policy and Human Development, Kabul, Afghanistan.

Tünnermeier, T., & Houben, G. (2005). Hydrogeology of the Kabul Basin, part I: geology, aquifer characteristics, climate and hydrography. Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany, AA-Gz’GF07, 885(3): 16-45.

UNICEF. (2014).Children and women in Afghanistan: a situation analysis. United Nations Children’s Fund. Kabul, Afghanistan.

UNICEF. (2012,. a,. b). Arsenic, Fluoride contamination of drinking water in Afghanistan. WASH Section. Available at info/files/WASH_WQ_ARSENIC_NATIONAL.pdf info/files/WASH_WQ_FLUORIDhE_NATIONAL.pdf

United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). (1984). A ground water protection strategy for the Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Drinking Water. United States Geological Survey (USGS). (2007). Geological map of Afghanistan, Available at USGS_OFR_2007_1104.html

UNICEF, (1976). Hydro geological Survey in Kabul Province. Kabul 1976.

WHO (2011) - Guidelines for drinking water quality, 4th ed. Available at

Zaryab, A. Noori, A. Kai, W. Bjorn, Klove. (2017). Assessment of water quality and quantity trends aquifers with an outline for future drinking water supplies in Kabul. Central Asian Journal of Water Research (2017) 3(2):3-11, special issue on water use management challenges in central Asia and Afghanista


  • There are currently no refbacks.