Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Cover Image

Declining Physical Fitness in College Male Students during Covid-19 Pandemic

Jieun Yu, Yongseok Jee

Abstract


Aim: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, people all over the world are staying home and as result, are less physically active. Physical inactivity is widely known to have a negative effect on the human body, but it is not known to what extent health related fitness factors can be affected. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of physical inactivity by recruiting participants who regularly exercised before, but have stopped during the pandemic period. Materials and Methods: The participants were college male students and their mean (± SD) age and body weight were 23.48 (± 1.56) years old and 73.18 (± 8.81) kg, respectively, as of the end of May 2020. Results: In terms of body composition, muscle mass (≈ -2.2%) significantly decreased, whereas body weight (≈ 1.2%), fat mass (≈ 7.2%), percent fat (≈ 9.2%), and waist/hip ratio (≈ 2.3%) significantly increased. For health related fitness factors, cardiopulmonary endurance (≈ -11%) significantly decreased, as well as strength (≈ -5%), muscle endurance (≈ -9%), and flexibility (≈ -11%) when compared prior to the COVID-19 period. These results indicate that the COVID-19 period had a negative effect on body composition and health fitness indices in male college students. Conclusion: Until a vaccine for COVID-19 is developed and distributed, it is important to prevent a decline in health related fitness due to physical inactivity.

Keywords


COVID-19, Body composition, Health fitness, Cardiopulmonary endurance.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Andersson, U., Yang, H., Harris, H., 2018. High-mobility Group Box 1 Protein (HMGB1) operates as an alarmin outside as well as inside cells. Semin Immunol, 38, 40-48.

Berger, R.A., 1970. Relationship between dynamic strength and dynamic endurance. Res Quart, 41, 115.

Bredeson, S., Papaconstantinou, J., Deford, J.H., Kechichian, T., Syed, T.A., Saade, G.R., Menon, R., 2014. HMGB1 Promotes a p38MAPK Associated Non-Infectious Inflammatory Response Pathway in Human Fetal Membranes. PLoS One, 9.

Brouha, L., Fradd, N.W. Savage, B.M., 1944. Studies in Physical Efficiency of College Students. Res Quart, 15, 211-224.

Brouha, L., Graybiel, A., Heath, C.W., 1943. The Step Test: A Simple Method for Measuring Physical Fitness for Hard Muscular Work in Adult Man. Rev Canada Biol, 1943, 2, 86-92.

Cha, J.Y., Jee, Y.S., 2018. Wushu Nanquan training is effective in preventing obesity and improving heart function in youth. J Exerc Rehabil, 14, 466-472.

Costill, D.L., Fink, W.J., Hargreaaves, M., King, D.S., Thomas, R., Fielding, R., 1985. Metabolic Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle during detraining from competitive swimming. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 17, 339-343.

Dominguez, L.J., Barbagallo, M., 2007. The cardiometabolic syndrome and sarcopenic obesity in older persons. J Cardiometab Syndr, 2, 183–189.

Edwards, K.M., Burns, V.E., Carroll, D., Drayson, M., Ring, C., 2007. The acute stress induced immunoenhancement hypothesis. Exerc Sport Sci Rev, 35, 150-155.

Fleck, S.J., 1994. Detraining: Its effects on endurance and strength. National strength and conditioning association, 22-28.

Fox, E.L., Mathews, D.K., 1981. The physiological basis of physical education and athletics. Saunders college publishing.

Gohab, J., Behringerc, M., 2018. Exercise alarms the immune system: A HMGB1 perspective. Cytokine, 110, 222-225.

Grant, R.W., Mariani, R.A., Vieira, V.J., Fleshner, M., Smith, T.P., Keylock, K.T., Lowder, T.W., McAuley, E., Hu, L., Chapman-Novakofski, K. Woods JA., 2008. Cardiovascular exercise intervention improves the primary antibody response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) in previously sedentary older adults. Brain Behav Immun, 22, 923–932.

Graves, J.E., Pollock, M.L., Leggett, S.H., Braith, R.W., Carpenter, D.M., Bishop, L.E., 1988. Effect of reduced training frequency on muscular strength. Int J Sports Med, 9, 316-319.

Gutin, B., Barbeau, P., Litaker, M.S., Ferguson, M., Owens, S., 2000. Heart rate variability in obese children: Relations to total body and visceral adiposity, and changes with physical training and detraining. Obes Res, 8, 12-19.

Hakkinen, K., Komi, P.V., 1985. Changes in electrical and mechanical behavior of leg extensor muscles during heavy resistance strength training. Scand J Sports Sci, 7, 55-64.

Houston, M. E., Bentzen, H., Larsen, H., 1979. Interrelationships between skeletal muscle adaptations and performance as studied by detraining and retraining. Acta Physiol Scand, 105, 163-170.

Jee, Y.S., 2020. How much exercise do we need to improve our immune system?: second series of scientific evidence. J Exerc Rehabil, 16, 113-11.

Jensen, G.L., 2008. Inflammation: roles in aging and sarcopenia. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 32, 656–659.

Kakanis, M.W., Peake, J., Brenu, E.W., Simmonds, M., Gray, B., Hooper, S.L., Marshall-Gradisnik, S.M., 2010. The open window of susceptibility to infection after acute exercise in healthy young male elite athletes. Exerc Immunol Rev, 16, 119–137.

Keylock, K.T., Lowder, T., Leifheit, K.A., Cook, M., Mariani, R.A., Ross, K., Kim, K., Chapman-Novakofski, K., McAuley, E., Woods, J.A., 2007. Higher antibody, but not cell-mediated, responses to vaccination in high physically fit elderly. J Appl Physiol, 102, 1090–1098.

Kim, C.J., 2020. New Year and coronavirus. J Exerc Rehabil, 16, 1-1.

Kim, J.D., Oh, H.W., Lee, J.H., Cha, J.Y., Ko, I.G., Jee, Y.S., 2013. The effect of inversion traction on pain sensation, lumbar flexibility and trunk muscles strength in patients with chronic low back pain. Isokinet Exerc Sci, 21, 237–224.

Kohut, M.L., Arntson, B.A., Lee, W., Rozeboom, K., Yoon, K.J., Cunnick, J.E., McElhaney, J., 2004. Moderate exercise improves antibody response to influenza immunization in older adults. Vaccine, 22, 2298–2306.

Lin, Y.S., Jan, M.S., Chen, H.I., 1993. The effect of chronic and acute exercise on immunity in rats. Int J Sports Med, 14, 86-92.

Nyenhuis, S.M., Greiwe, J., Zeiger, J.S. Nanda A, Cooke A., 2020. Exercise and Fitness in the age of social distancing during the COVID-19 Pandemic. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract, S2213-2198(20)30396-2.

Ogden, L.G., Stroebele, N., Wyatt, H.R., Catenacci, V.A., Peters, J. C., Stuht, J., Wing, R.R., Hill, J.O., 2012. Cluster analysis of the national weight control registry to identify distinct subgroups maintaining successful weight loss. Obesity (Silver Spring), 20, 2039–2047.

Park, S., Park, J., Yoo, J., Jee, Y.S., 2020. Effect of playing soccer on stress, sociality, and physical fitness in alienated youth: a retrospective study. J Exerc Rehabil, 16, 154-161.

Peake, J., Nosaka, K., Suzuki, K., 2005. Characterization of inflammatory responses to eccentric exercise in humans. Exerc Immunol Rev, 11, 64–85.

Rahmati-Ahmadabad, S., Hosseini, F., 2020. Exercise against SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19): Does workout intensity matter? (A mini review of some indirect evidence related to obesity). Obes Med.

Roffey, D.M., Budiansky, A., Coyle, M.J, Wai, E.K., 2013. Obesity and Low Back Pain: Is There a Weight of Evidence to Support a Positive Relationship? Current Obesity Reports, 2, 241–250.

Saltin, B., Rowell, L.B., 1980. Functional adaptations to physical activity and inactivity. Fed Proc, 39, 1506-1513.

Sharif, K., Watad, A., Bragazzi, N.L., Lichtbroun, M., Amital, H., Shoenfeld, Y., 2018. Physical activity and autoimmune diseases: Get moving and manage the disease. Autoimmun Rev, 17, 53-72.

Thompson, D., Karpe, F., Lafontan, M., Frayn, K., 2012. Physical activity and exercise in the regulation of human adipose tissue physiology. Physiol Rev, 92, 157–191.

Viana, R.B., de Lira, C.A.B., 2020. Exergames as Coping Strategies for Anxiety Disorders During the COVID-19 Quarantine Period. Games Health J, 9, 147-149.

Yang, Y., Verkuilen, J., Rosengren, K.S., Mariani, R.A., Reed, M., Grubisich, S.A., Woods, J.A., 2007. Effects of a Taiji and Qigong intervention on the antibody response to influenza vaccine in older adults. Am J Chin Med, 35, 597–607.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.