Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Cover Image

Interactive effect of harvest time and location on physicochemical maturity indices of mmupudu (Mimusops zeyheri) fruit

Morongwa Lillian Rammone, Tieho Paulus Mafeo, Kagiso Given Shadung


Generally, fruit trees development and maturity are affected by climatic conditions of where they grow. Fruit maturity at harvest is the critical factor, which determines fruit weight, juice content, fruit marketability, fruit disorders, titratable acidity and soluble solids in numerous fruit. The objective of this study was therefore, to determine the effect of location and harvest time on physicochemical maturity indices of M. zeyheri fruit. A 2 x 4 factorial experiment arranged randomised complete block design was established with the factors being two locations and four harvest times replicated five times. At each location, 20 fruit per replication were analysed for physical (external) and chemical (internal) maturity indices. Interactively, the effect of harvest time and location were highly significant on fruit firmness, hue angle, lightness, chroma, total soluble solids (TSS), titrated acidity (TA) and pH. However, location as a main factor had significant effect on fruit weight, fruit diameter, eye colour, hue angle, chroma and all measured internal maturity indices, while harvest time had significant effect on fruit diameter, eye colour, fruit firmness, hue angle, lightness, chroma, TSS and pH. Relatively, fruit weight, fruit diameter and TSS: TA were higher in Bochum on average, while Turfloop was higher in all other measured maturity indices. However, chroma, firmness loss, hue angle, lightness and eye colour increased with each progressing harvest time in both locations. Total soluble solids and TA increased with each harvest in Turfloop while it decreased in fruit collected from Bochum. Fruit pH, fruit weight and fruit diameter were found to be higher during September harvest in both locations. The results of this study therefore suggested that M. zeyheri fruit reaches maturity during September which is when the first and second fruit growth and development stages ceases. Therefore, it is recommended that M. zeyheri fruit be harvested in September as they can ripen after harvesting due to their climacteric nature.


Commercialisation, domesticated fruit trees, non-domesticated fruit trees, exotic fruit trees, indigenous fruit trees, maturity indices

Full Text:



Abadala, A., Gerasopoulos, D., Stavroulakis, G. (1996). Effects of harvest maturity and storage on ripening and membrane permeability of Hayward kiwifruit. Adv. Hortic.

Sci., 30: 3-7.

Alhassan, A.F., Adjei, P.Y., Mohammed, S. (2014). Effect of maturity stage and storage duration on physio-chemical properties of citrus (Citrus sinensus Var. ‘Late’ valencia). Eur. Sci. J., 10: 117-123.

Anwar, S.A., Ahmad, B., Sarfraz, M., Hussain, K., Bhatti, K.M., Saqib, M. (1999). Effect of picking time on physical and chemical characteristics of sweet oranges. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 1: 59-61.

Balaguera-López, H.E., Martínez-Cárdenas, C.A., Herrera-Arévalo, A. (2016). Effect of the maturity stage on the postharvest behaviour of ‘Cape’ gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L) fruits stored at room temperature. Bio. Growth., 28: 117-124.

Baloch, M.K., Bibi, F. (2012). Effect of harvesting and storage conditions on the postharvest quality and shelf life of mango (Mangifera indica L.). ‎S. Afr. J. Bot., 83: 109-116.

Beaulieu, J.C., Lancaster, V. (2007). Correlating volatile compounds, quality parameters, and sensory attributes in stored fresh-cut cantaloupe. J. Agric. Food Chem., 55: 9503- 9513.

Beever, D.J., Hopkirk, A.K. (1990). Fruit Development and Fruit Physiology. In: Warrington, I.J., Weston, G.C. (ed.), Kiwifruit: Science and Management, Oakland: New Zealand.

Bourne, M.C. (1982). Food Texture and Viscosity: Concept and Measurement. Academic Press: San Diego, United States of America.

Burns, J.K., Albrigo, L.G. (1998). Time of harvest and method of storage affect granulation in grapefruit. Hortic. Sci., 33: 728-730.

Carmichael, P.C. (2011). Effect of fruit maturation and ripening potential for optimum eating quality of ‘Forelle’ pears. Master of Science in Agriculture Thesis, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Chagne, D., Dayatilake, D., Diack, R., Murray, O., Ireland, H., Watson, A. Gardiner, S.E., Johnston, J.W., Schaffer, R.J., Stuart, T. (2014). Genetic and environmental control of fruit maturation, dry matter and firmness in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.)

Hortic. Res., 46: 140-152.

Chapman, G.W.J., Horvat, R.J. (1990). Changes in non-volatile acids, sugars, pectin, and sugar composition of pectin during peach (Cv. Monroe) maturation. J. Agric. Food Chem., 38: 383-387.

Cronje, P.J., Barry, G.H., Huysamer, M. (2013). Canopy position affects pigment expression and accumulation of flavedo carbohydrates of Nules Clementine mandarin fruit, thereby affecting rind condition. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci., 138: 217-224.

Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries(DAFF). (2012). Red Milkwood. Pretoria, South Africa.

Elmsly, T.A., Mandemaker, A.J., Dixon, E.M., Smith D.B., Dixon, J. (2007). Influence of time of day of harvest on 'Hass' avocado ripe fruit quality. NZ Avocado Growers' Association Res. Rep., 7: 91-96.

Harris, S.A., Robinson, J.P., Juniper, B.E. (2002). Genetic clues to the origin of the apple. Trends Genet., 18: 426-430.

Iqbal, M., Muhammad, M.N., Zafar, M., Munir, M. (2012). Effect of harvesting date on fruit size, fruit weight and total soluble solids of Feutrell’s early and Kinnow cultivars of Madarin (Citrus reticulata) on the economic conditions of farming community of Faisalabad. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 28: 1-9.

Jongen, W.M.F. (2000). Food Supply Chains: from Productivity Towards Quality. In: Shewfelt, R.L., Bruckner, B. (ed.). Fruit and Vegetable Quality. An Integrated View. Lancaster: USA.

Kader, A.A. (1999). Fruit maturity ripening and quality relationships. Acta Hort., 485: 203- 208.

Katsvanga, C.A.T., Jimu, L., Gwenzi, D., Muhoni, L., Masuka, P., Moyo, M. (2017). Characterisation of community identified Uapaca kirkiana phenotypes for domestication. J. Sust. Dev. Afr., 9: 356-366.

Koch, K.E. (1984). Production and environmental factors affecting the brix/acid ratio. Plant Cell Environ., 7: 647-653.

Ladaniya, M.S. (2008). Citrus Fruit: Biology, Technology and Evaluation. Atlanta: United States.

Leakey, R.R.B., Newton, A.C. (1994). Domestication of Cinderella species as the Start of a Woody-Plant Revolution. In: Leakey, R.R.B., Newton, A.C., (ed.). Tropical trees: The Potential for Domestication and Rebuilding of Forest Resources. HMSO: London.

Mafeo, T.P., Mothapo, M.J., Mamphiswana, N.D. (2014). Physico-chemical properties and selected nutritional components of wild medlar (Vangueria infausta) fruit harvested at

two harvesting times. World J. Dairy Food Sci., 9: 79-85.

Manning, N. (2009). Physical, sensory and consumer analysis of pear genotype among South

African consumers and preference of appearance among European consumers. Master

of Science in Agriculture Thesis, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Masarirambi, M.T., Nxumalo, K.A. (2012). Post-harvest physiological indicators on the

phenotypic variation of Marula fruits (Sclerocarya birreasub spp. caffra) in

Swaziland. Int. J. Pharm. Biol. Sci., 1: 1025-1039.

Marcos, T., Lötze, E., Theron, K.I., Jacobs, G. (2008). Improving the prediction model for

harvest maturity of ‘William’s Bon Chretien’ pears. Acta Hort., 803: 273-281.

Mashela, P.W., Tseke, P.E., Pofu, K.M., Mafeo, T.P. (2013). Potential commercialisation of

Mimusops zeyheri: An indigenous tree selected for research and development through

indigenous knowledge systems. Afr. Crop Sci. Con. Pro., 11: 667-669.

McGuire, R.G. (1992). Reporting of objective color measurements. HortScience, 27: 1254-

Moing, A., Renaud, C., Gaudillere, M., Raymond, P., Roudeillac, P., Denoyes-Rothan, B. (2001). Biochemical changes during fruit development of four strawberry cultivars. J. Am.

Soc. Hortic. Sci., 126: 394-403.

Mphahlele, R.R., Fawole, O.N., Opara, U.M. (2016). Influence of packaging system and long

term storage on physiological attributes, biochemical quality, volatile composition

and antioxidant properties of pomegranate fruit. Sci. Hortic., 211: 140-151

Ofori, D.A., Peprah, T., Koech, G., Anjarwalla, P., Munjuga, M., Jamnadass, R. (2015).

Survival, growth performance and reproductive biology of Allanblackia parviflora A.

Chev., a high valued indigenous fruit tree species in Ghana. Genet. Resour. Crop

Evol., 62: 1007-1022.

Paran, I., Van Der Knaap, E. (2007). Genetic and molecular regulation of fruit and plant

domestication traits in tomato and pepper. ‎J. Exp. Bot., 58: 3841-3852.

Saka, J.D.K., Msonthi, J.D., J.A. Maghembe. (1994). The nutritional value of edible fruits of

indigenous wild trees in Malawi. For. Ecol. Manag., 64: 245-248.

Schirra, M., Agabbio, M., D'hallewin, G., Pala, M., Ruggiu, R. (1997). Response of tarocco

oranges to picking date, postharvest hot water dips, and chilling storage temperature.

J. Agric. Food Chem., 45: 3216-3220.

Srivastava, L.M. (2002). Plant Growth and Development: Hormones and Environment.

Academic press: Oxford.

Tosun, I., Ustun, N.S., Tekguler, B. (2008). Physical and chemical changes during ripening

of blackberry fruits. J. Agric. Sci., 65: 87-90.

Watada, A.E., Abbott, J.A., Finney, E.E. (1976). Firmness of peaches measured non-

destructively. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci., 101: 404-406.

Xudong, S., Hailiang, Z., Yande, L. (2009). Non-destructive assessment of quality of

Nanfeng mandarin fruit by a portable near infrared spectroscopy. Int. J. Agric. Biol.

Eng., 2: 65-71.


  • There are currently no refbacks.