Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Cover Image

Determination of sex by foot and footprint dimensions in the Sinhalese population of Sri Lanka

Chinthani Deepthi Nanayakkara, Tharanga Nandasena, Lakshika S Nawarathna, Sajjiv Ariyasinghe, Kapila Arambawatta, Sandeep Alahakoon

Abstract


Sex estimation is an important attribute towards establishing the personal identity. Previous studies have demonstrated that metric sex determination methods are population-specific. Standards for sex estimation have been established using foot and footprint dimensions for different populations.  The present study was undertaken to investigate the degree of sexual dimorphism in the foot and footprint measurements with the aim of deriving population-specific sex determination formulae using sexually dimorphic foot and footprint measurements among the Sinhalese in Sri Lanka.

Three anthropometric and seven linear measurements obtained from each foot and footprint were analyzed.  All measurements were significantly larger in males than females (P < 0.001).  The overall cross-validated percent correct sex classifications for the foot dimensions ranged from 88.8% to 96.6% and 90.5% to 94.0% for the right and left foot, respectively. The corresponding values for footprint measurements were 73.9% to 83.6% and 75.9% to 83.6%. The most dimorphic single parameter was the foot length providing cross validated sex predicting accuracy rates of 96.6% and 94.0% for the right and left foot, respectively.  The study reveals that foot and footprint measurements can be used effectively to classify sex with a high degree of accuracy among the Sinhalese population in Sri Lanka.


Keywords


Anthropometry, foot, footprint, forensic anthropology, sex estimation

Full Text:

PDF

References


Byers, S.N., 2008. Introduction of forensic anthropology, third ed. Allyn and Bacon, Boston.

Scheuer, L., 2002. Application of osteology to forensic medicine. Clin Anat.15, 297-312.

Frayer, D.W., Wolpoff, M.H., 1985. Sexual dimorphism. Ann. Rev. Anthropol. 14, 429–473

Humphrey, L.T., 2008. Growth patterns in the modern human skeleton. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 105, 57-72.

Plavcan, J. M ., 2012. Body Size, Size Variation, and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Early Homo. Current Anthropology. 53(S6), S409-S423.

Jantz, L.M., Jantz, R.L.,1999. Secular change in long bone length and proportion in the United States, 1800–1970. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 110, 57–67.

Pearson, K. , 1899. Mathematical contribution to the theory of evolution on reconstruction of Stature of prehistoric races. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond Series A. 192, 169-244.

Hemy, N., Flavel, A., Ishak, N., Franklin, D., 2013. Sex estimation using anthropometry of feet and footprints in a Western Australian population. Forensic. Sci. Int., Elsevier Ireland Ltd., 231, 402.e1–402.e6. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2013.05.029

Abledu, J.K., Abledu, G.K., Offei, E.B., Antwi, E.M., 2015. Determination of sex from footprint dimensions in a Ghanaian population. PLoS ONE.10 (10), e0139891. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.013989

Atamturk, D., 2010. Estimation of sex from the dimensions of foot, footprints, and shoe. J. Biol. Clin. Anthr. 68, 21–29.

Krishan, K., Kanchan, T., Sharma, A., 2011. Sex determination from hand and foot dimensions in a north Indian population. J. Forensic. Sci. 56, 453–459.

Sen, J., Kanchan, T., Ghosh, S., 2011 Sex estimation from foot dimensions in an indigenous Indian population. J. Forensic. Sci.56, S148–S153.

Zeybek, G., Ergu,r I., Demiroglu, Z., 2008. Stature and gender estimation using foot measurements. Forensic. Sci. Int. 181, 54e1-5.

Krishan, K., 2008. Estimation of stature from footprint and foot outline dimensions in Gujjars of North India. Forensic. Sci. Int. 175, 93–101.

Uhrova, P., Benus, R., Masnicova, S. et al., 2015. Estimation of stature using hand and foot dimensions in Slovak adults. Leg. Med. 17, 92–97.

Lin, L.I., 1989. A concordance correlation coefficient to evaluate reproducibility. Biometrics. 45, 225–268.

Ozden, H., Balci, Y., Demirustu, C., Turgut, A., Ertugrul, M., 2005. Stature and sex estimate using foot and shoe dimensions. Forensic. Sci. Int.147,181–184.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.