Ginkgo Biloba Inhibits Intermittent High Glucose Induced Monocyte Adhesion to Endothelial Cells by Decreasing Adhesion Molecules Expression via Antioxidant Activity
Background: Intermittent high glucose (IHG) has greater effect than sustained high glucose on the development of atherosclerosis, in which increased monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells is thought to be one of the earliest events. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) 761 has commonly been used as a therapeutic agent for cardiovascular disorders. However, whether EGb 761 suppresses IHG induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells remains unclear.
Materials and methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured under IHG conditions with or without treatment of EGb 761. Subsequently, rate of monocyte adhesion to HUVECs, expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), NADPH oxidase activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed.
Results: High glucose, especially IHG, increased monocyte adhesion to HUVECs and enhanced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, accompanied by increased intracellular ROS production, NADPH oxidase activity and MDA, while SOD activity was weaken. These detrimental effects were ameliorated by EGb 761 (p < 0.01).
Conclusion: EGb 761 can remarkably alleviate adhesion of monocyte to endothelial cells caused by IHG, which may provide insight into a possible mechanism underlying suppression of IHG induced development of atherosclerosis.
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