Comparative analysis of mental stress and related risk factors among newly diagnosed Type- 2 Diabetic patients

Hajra Ahmad, zaheer ahmed, Rezzan Khan, Asma Afreen

Abstract


Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of mental stress on physical and biochemical risk factors among Type-2 diabetic patients.

Methods: A total of 104 newly diagnosed Type-2 diabetic were enrolled from Medical Unit of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan. The status of mental stress was assessed with the help of a nominal scale. The selected biochemical parameters included diabetic and lipid profile and some information related to renal and hepatic health. Socio- demographic data was collected with the help of a questionnaire.

Results: It was found that 97% of the subjects were suffering from some level of mental stress.  Body Mass Index (BMI) and hypertension were strongly associated with mental stress with P value of 0.032 and 0.036 respectively. A significant association was found between gender and mental stress with P value of 0.041. Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) levels had week association (P value of 0.619). Mental stress had no effect on biochemical parameters related to diabetes.

Conclusion: Majority of the Type 2 diabetics suffer from varying levels of mental stress.  BMI, hypertension and gender are closely related with this problem. Diabetic profile and related biochemical parameters had no association with mental stress.  


Keywords


Type 2 diabetes mellitus; mental stress; BMI; hypertension; diabetic profile; lipid profile;

References


Asmat, U., Abad, K., & Ismail, K. 2015. Diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress—A concise review. Saudi Pharm J. 24, 547–553.

Egede, L. E., & Zheng, D. 2003. Independent factors associated with major depressive disorder in a national sample of individuals with diabetes. Diabetes Care, 26(1), 104-111.

Guariguata, L., Whiting, D., Hambleton, I., Beagley, J., Linnenkamp, U., & Shaw, J. 2014. Global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2013 and projections for 2035. Diabetes Res Clin Pract., 103(2), 137-149.

Gupta, V., Walia, G. K., Khadgawat, R., Ng, H. T., & Sachdeva, M. 2015. Familial history: a risk factor of type 2 diabetes among the “Aggarwal” population of Delhi, India. ‎Int. J. Diab. Dev. Ctries., 1-4.

Hsu, W. C., Araneta, M. R. G., Kanaya, A. M., Chiang, J. L., & Fujimoto, W. 2015. BMI cut points to identify at-risk Asian Americans for type 2 diabetes screening. Diabetes Care, 38(1), 150-158.

Kelly, S. J., & Ismail, M. 2015. Stress and type 2 diabetes: a review of how stress contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes. Annu. Rev. Public Health, 36, 441-462.

Lin, P.-J., Kent, D. M., Winn, A., Cohen, J. T., & Neumann, P. J. 2015. Multiple chronic conditions in type 2 diabetes mellitus: prevalence and consequences. Am. J. Manag. Care., 21(1), e23-34.

Maier, W., Holle, R., Hunger, M., Peters, A., Meisinger, C., Greiser, K., . . . Moebus, S. 2013. The impact of regional deprivation and individual socio‐economic status on the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in Germany. A pooled analysis of five population‐based studies. Diabetic Med., 30(3), e78-e86.

Marfell-Jones, M. J., Stewart, A., & de Ridder, J. 2012. International standards for anthropometric assessment.

Puscheck, E. E., Awonuga, A. O., Yang, Y., Jiang, Z., & Rappolee, D. A. 2015. Molecular biology of the stress response in the early embryo and its stem cells Cell Signaling During Mammalian Early Embryo Development (pp. 77-128): Springer.

Sacerdote, C., Ricceri, F., Rolandsson, O., Baldi, I., Chirlaque, M.-D., Feskens, E., . . . Balkau, B. 2012. Lower educational level is a predictor of incident type 2 diabetes in European countries: the EPIC-InterAct study. Int. J. Epidemiol., 41(4), 1162-1173.

Shallcross, A. J., Ojie, M.-J., Chaplin, W., Levy, N., Odedosu, T., Ogedegbe, G., & Spruill, T. M. 2015. Race/ethnicity moderates the relationship between chronic life stress and quality of life in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 108(1), 150-156.

Steptoe, A., Hackett, R. A., Lazzarino, A. I., Bostock, S., La Marca, R., Carvalho, L. A., & Hamer, M. 2014. Disruption of multisystem responses to stress in type 2 diabetes: investigating the dynamics of allostatic load. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(44), 15693-15698.

Streiner, D. L., Norman, G. R., & Cairney, J. 2014. Health measurement scales: a practical guide to their development and use: Oxford university press.

Stringhini, S., Tabak, A. G., Akbaraly, T. N., Sabia, S., Shipley, M. J., Marmot, M. G., . . . Kivimäki, M. 2012. Contribution of modifiable risk factors to social inequalities in type 2 diabetes: prospective Whitehall II cohort study. BMJ, 345, e5452.

Tao, Z., Shi, A., & Zhao, J. 2015. Epidemiological perspectives of diabetes. Cell Biochem. Biophys., 73(1), 181-185.

Vanderlip, E. R., Katon, W., Russo, J., Lessler, D., & Ciechanowski, P. 2014. Depression Among Patients With Diabetes Attending a Safety-Net Primary Care Clinic: Relationship With Disease Control. Psychosomatics, 55(6), 548-554.

Wang, C., Li, J., Xue, H., Li, Y., Huang, J., Mai, J., . . . Guo, D. 2015. Type 2 diabetes mellitus incidence in Chinese: contributions of overweight and obesity. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract, 107(3), 424-432.

Wang, L., Song, R., Chen, Z., Wang, J., & Ling, F. 2015. Prevalence of depressive symptoms and factors associated with it in type 2 diabetic patients: a cross-sectional study in China. BMC public health, 15(1), 1.

Wiernik, E., Nabi, H., Thomas, F., Pannier, B., Hanon, O., Simon, T., . . . Czernichow, S. 2016. Association between current perceived stress and incident diabetes is dependent on occupational status: Evidence from the IPC cohort study. Diabetes Metab.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.