Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access
Cover Image

Exogenous selenium improves growth, water balance and chlorophyll content in indica and japonica rice exposed to salinity

Mohammad Abu Naim, Md. Abdul Matin, Taufika Islam Anee, Md. Hasanuzzaman, Imtiaz Faruk Chowdhury, Bam H. N. Razafindrabe, Mirza Hasanuzzaman


A pot experiment with three boro rice varieties viz. BRRI dhan45; BRRI dhan47 and Nipponbare was conducted to investigate the role of exogenous Selenium (Se) in growth, yield and antioxidant defense systems of rice under different salt stress conditions. The experiment was carried out with seven salt stress treatments viz. control (without salt), S50 (50 mM salt stress), S50+Se (50 mM salt stress+50 µM Se), S100 (100 mM salt stress), S100+Se (100 mM salt stress+50 µM Se), S150 (150 mM salt stress) and S150+Se (150 mM salt stress+50 µM Se). Salt stress significantly reduced the plant height, effective tillers hill−1, leaf relative water content (RWC) and chlorophyll (chl) content of all these varieties. However, exogenous Se application has shown positive effects in reversing these parameters, specially in case of lower level of stress. But this effect tends to decline with increasing concentration of.Considering the response to exogenous application of Se under the stress condition, BRRI dhan47 can be recognized as a naturally salinity tolerant rice variety as it performed better compared to BRRI dhan45 and Nipponbare.


abiotic stress, osmotic stress, plant water relation, salt stress, trace elements

Full Text:



Addinsoft, 2014. XLSTAT 2014: Data analysis and statistics software for Microsoft Excel. Addinsoft, Paris, France.

Amirjani, M.R., 2011. Effect of salinity stress on growth, sugar content, pigments and enzyme activity of rice. Int. J. Bot. 7(1), 73–81.

Asch, F., Dingkuhn, M., Dörffling, K., 1997. Physiological stresses of irrigated rice caused by soil salinity in the Sahel, in: Miezan, K.M., Wopereis, M.C.S., Dingkuhn, M., Deckers, J., Randolph, T.F. (Eds.), Irrigated rice in the Sahel: Prospects for Sustainable Development. West Africa Rice Development Association, BP 2551, Bouake 01, Côted’Ivoire, pp. 247−273.

Athar, H.R., Ashraf, M., 2009. Strategies for crop improvement against salt and water stress: an overview, in: Ashraf, M., Ozturk, M., Athar, H.R. (Eds.), Salinity and water stress: improving crop efficiency. Springer, The Netherlands, pp. 1–16.

Barrs, H.D., Weatherley, P.E., 1962. A re-examination of the relative turgidity technique for estimating water deficits in leaves. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 15, 413–428.

Bray, E.A., Bailey-Serres, J., Weretilnyk, E., 2000. Responses to abiotic stress, in: Buchanan, B., Gruissem, W., Jones, R. (Eds.), Biochemistry and molecular biology of plants. American Society of Plant Physiology, Rockville, pp. 1158–1203.

Cartes, P., Jara, A.A., Pinilla, L., Rosas, A., Mora, M.L., 2010. Selenium improves the antioxidant ability against aluminium-induced oxidative stress in ryegrass roots. Ann. Appl. Biol. 156, 297–307.

Chaparzadeh, N., Mehrnejad, F., 2013. Oxidative markers in five Iranian alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars under salinity stress. Iranian J. Plant Physiol. 3(4), 793–799.

Chu, X., Yao, Y., Zhang, Z., 2010. Responses of wheat seedlings to exogenous selenium supply under cold stress. J. BioI. Trace Elem. Res. 136(3), 355−363.

Djanaguiraman, M., Devi, A.K., Shanker, A., Sheeba, J.A., Bangarusamy, U., 2005. Selenium- an antioxidative protectant in soybean during senescence. Plant Soil 272(1), 77−86.

Djanaguiraman, M., Prasad, P.V.V., Seppanen, M., 2010. Selenium protects sorghum leaves from oxidative damage under high temperature stress by enhancing antioxidant defense system. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 48, 999–1007.

El-Shabrawi, H., Kumar, B, Kaul, T., Reddy, M.K., Singla-Pareek, S.L., Sopory, S.K., 2010. Redox homeostasis, antioxidant defense, and methylglyoxal detoxification as markers for salt tolerancein Pokkali rice. Protoplasma 245, 85–96.

Filek, M., Keskinen, R., Hartikainen, H., Szarejko, I., Janiak, A., Miszalski, Z., Golda, A., 2008. The protective role of selenium in rape seedlings subjected to cadmium stress. J. Plant Physiol. 165(8), 833–844.

Ghosh, N., Adak, M.K., Ghosh, P.D., Gupta, S., Sen Gupta, D.N., Mandal, C., 2011. Differential Responses of two rice varieties to salt stress. Plant Biotechnol. Rep. 5, 89−103.

Habibi, G., 2013. Effect of drought stress and selenium spraying on photosynthesis and antioxidant activity of spring barley. Acta agric. Slovenica. 101(1), 31−39.

Hartikainen, H., Pietola, L., Simojoki, A., 2001. Quantification of fine roots responses to selenium toxicity. Agric. Food Sci. Finland. 10(1), 53−58.

Hartikainen, H., Xue, T., Piironen, V., 2000. Selenium as an antioxidant and pro-oxidant in ryegrass. Plant Soil 22(5), 193−200.

Hasamuzzaman, M., Fujita, M., Islam, M.N., Ahamed, K.U., Nahar, K., 2009. Performance of four irrigated rice varieties under different levels of salinity stress. Int. J. Integr. Biol. 6(2), 85−89.

Hasanuzzaman, M., Fujita, M., 2011. Selenium pretreatment upregulates the antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification system and confers enhanced tolerance to drought stress in rapeseed seedlings. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 143, 1758–1776.

Hasanuzzaman, M., Fujita, M., 2011. Selenium pretreatment upregulates the antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification system and confers enhanced tolerance to drought stress in rapeseed seedlings. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 143(3):1758-76

Hasanuzzaman, M., Hossain, M.A., da Silva, J.A.T., Fujita, M., 2012. Plant responses and tolerance to abiotic oxidative stress: antioxidant defenses is a key factor, in: Bandi, V., Shanker, A.K., Shanker, C., Mandapaka, M. (Eds.), Crop stress and its management: perspectives and strategies. Springer, Berlin, pp. 261–316.

Hasanuzzaman, M., Hossain, M.A., Fujita, M. 2011. Selenium-induced up-regulation of the antioxidant defense and methylglyoxal detoxification system reduces salinity-induced damage in rapeseed seedlings. Biol Trace Elem Res. 143(3), 1704–1721.

Hasanuzzaman, M., Hossain, M.A., Fujita, M., 2010. Selenium in higher plants: Physiological role, antioxidant metabolism and abiotic stress tolerance. J. Plant Sci. 5(4), 354–375.

Hasanuzzaman, M., Nahar, K. and Fujita, M., 2013. Plant response to salt stress and role of exogenous protectants to mitigate salt-induced damages, in: Ahmad, P., Azooz, M.M., Prasad, M.N.V. (Eds.), Ecophysiology and responses of plants under salt stress. Springer, New York, pp. 25−87.

Hawrylak-Nowak, B., 2009. Beneficial effects of exogenous selenium in cucumber seedlings subjected to salt stress. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 132(1), 259–269.

Heenan, D.P., Lewin, L.G., 1998. Salinity tolerance in rice varieties at different growth stages. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 28(3), 343–349.

Islam, M.Z., Baset Mia, M.A., 2007. Effect of different saline levels on growth and yield attributes of mutant rice. J. Soil. Nature. 1(2), 18−22.

Katerji, N., van Hoorn, J.W., Hamdy, A., Mastrorilli, M., Moukarzel, E., 1997. Osmotic adjustment of sugar beets in response to soil salinity and its influence on stomatal conductance, growth and yield. Agric. Water Manage. 34(1), 57–69.

Kong, L., Wang, M., Bi, D., 2005. Selenium modulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes, osmotic homeostasis and promotes the growth of sorrel seedlings under salt stress. Plant Growth Regul. 45(2), 155−163.

Lee, K.W., Choi, J.K., Kim, T., Gregorio, G.B., 2003. Salinity tolerance of japonica and indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) at the seedling stage. Planta 216(6), 1043−1046.

Lyons, G.H., Stangoulis, J.C.R., Graham, R.D., 2005. Tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to high soil and solution selenium levels. Plant Soil 270, 179−188.

Maxwell, K., Johnson, G.N., 2000. Chlorophyll fluorescence—a practical guide. J. Expt. Bot. 51(345), 659–668.

Mittler, R., 2002. Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends Plant Sci. 7, 405−410.

Nawaz, F., Ashraf, M.Y., Ahmad, R., Waraich, E.A., Shabbir, N., 2014. Selenium (Se) regulates seedling growth in wheat under drought stress. Adv. Chem. doi: 10.1155/2014/143567.

Pérez-López, U., Robredo, S.A., Lacuesta, M., Sgherri, C., Munoz, A., Navari-Izzo, F., Mena-Petite, A., 2010. The oxidative stress caused by salinity in two barley cultivars is mitigated by elevated CO2¬. Physiol. Plant. 135, 29−42.

Rani, N., Dhillon, K.S., Dhillon, S.K., 2005. Critical levels of selenium in different crops grown in an alkaline silty loam soil treated with selenite-Se. Plant Soil 277, 367−374.

Sajjad, M.S., 1984. Effect of increased salt stress on yield and yield components in rice. Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 27, 292–294.

Shalhevet, J., 1995. Root and shoot growth responses to salinity in maize and soybean. Agron J. 87, 512−516.

Tanou, G., Job, C., Rajjou, L., Arc, E., Belghzi, M., Diamantidis, G., Molassiotis, A., Job, D., 2009. Proteomics reveal the overlapping roles of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in the acclimation of citrus plants to salinity. Plant J. 60, 795−804.

Terry, N., Zayed, A.M., de Souza, M.P., Tarun, A.S., 2000. Selenium in higher plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 51, 401–432.

Turakainen, M., Hartikainen, H., Seppänen, M.M., 2004. Effects of selenium treatments on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) growth and concentrations of soluble sugars and starch. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52, 5378–5382.

USDA 2015, Grain and Feed Annual. United States Department of Agriculture.

Vysotskaya, L., Hedley, P.E., Sharipova, G., Veselov, D., Kudoyarova, G., Morris, J., Jones, H.G., 2010. Effect of salinity on water relations of wild barley plants differing in salt tolerance. AoB Plant. 10, 1093−1099.

Wang, W. Vinocur, B., Shoseyour, O., Altman, A., 2001. Biotechnology of plant osmotic stress tolerance: physiological and molecular considerations. Acta Hort. 590, 286–292.

Wopereis, M.C.S., Ceuppens, J., Boivin, B., Ndiaye, A.M., Kane, A., 1998. Preserving soil quality under irrigation in the Senegal river valley. Nethreland J. Agril. Sci. 46, 97−107.

Xue, T.L., Hartikainen, H., Piironen, V., 2001. Antioxidative and growthpromoting effects of selenium on senescing lettuce. Plant Soil 237, 55–61.

Yao, X., Chu, J., Ba, C., 2010. Responses of wheat roots to exogenous selenium supply under enhanced ultraviolet-B. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 137, 244–252.


  • There are currently no refbacks.